Sunday, December 8, 2019
Master of Arts in Nursing Essay There is a knowledge base, authority over education, altruistic service, a code Of ethics and registration requirements for practice ( Mac Owen, 2007 ) A discipline is a unique perspective, a distinct way of viewing all phenomenon Which defines the limits and nature Of its inquiry. It is a branch Of knowledge ordered through the theories and methods evolving from more than one worldview of the phenomenon of concern. According to Mac Owen (2007) nursing knowledge base draws from many disciplines. In the past it has depended heavily on physiology, sociology, psychology and medicine to provide academic standing and to improve practice. However, recently nursing has been seeking hat is unique to nursing and developing those aspects into an academic discipline, What are the cornerstones of a discipline? L. Research- this is a systematic method of inquiry to discover an/or validate knowledge thus establishing a knowledge base to be used in practice. It contributes to the development of theory for practice, 2. Theory- is an intellectual invention which groups knowledge, ideas and experience seeking to illumine a given phenomena. It involves intellectual operations and is comprised of facts, principles, and concepts that are arranged to claim their interrelatedness. It describes something, a happening, a honeymoon, or explains phenomena and organize ideas and knowledge. Theory development is essential to nursing practice in that it describes, predicts, controls and explains phenomenon of interest to nurses. It validates, enhances and improves nursing practice promoting understanding and explanation of the phenomena and gives rise to the body of knowledge. 3. Practice It is the application of the discipline with a knowledge base a vehicle for implementation of theory as well as validation and impetus for research. According to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (2007) there are 4 important defining characteristics that determine nursing perspective: 1. Nature of nursing as human science 2. Nursing as a practice- oriented discipline 3. Nursing as a caring discipline the caring relationships that nurses and patients develop 4 Nursing as a health oriented discipline. It is an art where nurses grasp the meaning that is inherent in their encounter with patients, establish connections With clients skillfully perform nursing activities, choose between alternatives and to morally conduct nursing practice. The Stages in the Development of the Nursing Discipline 1. Stage of Practice, Apprenticeship and service- In this stage the mission of urging is to provide care and comfort to enhance healing and sense of well- being and to create a healthy environment that helps decrease suffering and deterioration. 2. Stage of Education and Administration- In this stage the focus of nursing is on what curriculum to develop and what training programs to offer to teach nursing practice also, vatu educational programs are best for prospective nurses, and what is the best venue for the education of nurses; is it the university or in the hospital 3. Stage of Research- In this stage nurses begin to look for means to improve the practice Of nursing. Nurses begin to engage in nursing inquiries and scientific endeavors. Thus, theory development improve because of research. 4. Stage of Theory This stage focuses on the fundamental questions about the essence of nursing, its mission, and its goals. Theory development at this time is influenced by many factors: paradigm of related disciplines, by the educational background which stems from existentialism, pragmatism, psychoanalysis, as well as trot humanism. According to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (2007) three themes in nursing evolved during this stage, These are: acceptance of the complexity Of nursing ND the inevitability tot multiple theories; acceptance of the need to test and corroborate major propositions of differing theories before dismissing any of them; and the idea that concepts or theories remaining in the field, through cumulative effect become the bases for the development of a scientific perspective. 5. Stage of Philosophy This stage focus on the raising and answering of questions about the nature of nursing knowledge. It is during this stage that nurses ask questions related to values, meanings and realities. 6. Stage of Integration- This stage is characterized by dialogues and discussions elated to Structures such as nursing, science, theories. Philosophy, clinical knowledge and nursing specialties. This stage marks the development of educational programs that are organized around the integration Of theory, research and practice. It is during this stage that members of specialty areas develop theories related to their fields. A final characteristic of this stage, according to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (1997) , is the systematic reappraisal of philosophical and theoretical underpinning that have guided the definitions and the conceptualization of the central concepts of the domain of nursing. 7. Stage tot Interdisciplinary In the beginning of the 21st century there was integration that challenged members of different disciplines to build programs of research that incorporate theories and evidences from different disciplines. Relationships are forged between research and clinicians who are members of different disciplines to develop joint institutes to advance research programs or to provide more comprehensive education. LESSON 2 NURSINGS INTERMARRIAGE A intermarriage is the global perspective of a discipline that identifies the primary phenomena that re Of interest to that discipline and explain how the spelling deals with those phenomena in a unique manner (Faucet 2000) as cited by Mac Owen (2007). The intermarriage includes major philosophical orientations or worldviews of a discipline, the conceptual models and theories that guide research and other scholarly activities. Person or nursing client- The recipient of care including its physical, intellectual, spiritual, psychological, and sculptural components (Catalane 1990). He is a human energy field, a holistic being in the world, an open system, an integrated whole, an adaptive system, and a being who is greater than the um of his parts ( Wagner 1986) The client may be an individual, family, or community. Health refers to the degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person. It is the ability to function independently, successful adaptation to life stresses, achievement of ones full life potential, and unity of mind, body, and soul. (Wagner 1 981) It is a continuum raging from a completely healthy state where there is no disease in to a completely unhealthy stage which ends in death At any given time in ones life , everyone is located somewhere along the health continuum and may move closer to one side or the other depending on his life tuition. The concept of health will vary from person to person and culture to culture ( Throne at AY 1998 ) Environment refers to all external and internal conditions, circumstances and influence affecting the person, significant others with whom the person interacts, and an open system With boundaries that permit the exchange Of the matter, energy and information with human beings (Wagner 1986) In nursing, the concept Of environment includes not only the simple surroundings but also to indicate elements such as living conditions, public sanitation, air and water, quality, interpersonal relationships and social interactions. The mount etna EssayActivity-exercise pattern 5. Cognitive-perceptual pattern 6. Sleep-rest pattern 7. Self-perception-self-concept pattern 8. Role-relationship pattern 9. Coping-stress-tolerance pattern 10. Value-belief pattern Some Other typologies Of nursing problems have been developed by Other nursing theorists, thus, emphasis on when to assess is very much influenced by the theoretical framework that is being subscribed to by the nurse. Nursing Diagnosis. The second component of the nursing process is the Nursing Diagnosis. Nursing diagnoses are defined as labels given to problems that fall within the domain of nursing. According to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (1997), TTT is a concise summary, a conceptual statement of the clients health status. The nursing literature contains many definitions tort nursing diagnosis. All tot these definitions add to better understanding of what the concept means, Some of these definitions are: 1. Nursing diagnosis is a concise phrase or term summarizing a cluster of empirical indicators representing patterns of unitary man (Roy, 1982) 2, A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about an individual, family or community Vichy is derived through a deliberate, systematic process of data collection analysis. It provides the basis for prescriptions for definitive therapy for Which the nurse is accountable. (Shoemaker, 1989) 3. A nursing diagnosis is a statement that describes the human response of an individual or group Which the nurse can legally identify and for Which the nurse can order the definitive interventions to maintain the health state or to reduce, eliminate or prevent alternation. 4. A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about individual. Family, community responses to actual or potential health problems and live processes. Nursing diagnosis provides the bases for selecting nursing interventions to which the nurse is accountable (AND 1 990) These are just a few of the definitions and they can be summarized as being a statement that describes a clients actual or potential response to a health problem to which the nurse is capable of and is called upon to provide competent interventions. The evolution of the term nursing was fraught with controversy. Nurses at first were hesitant to use the term nursing diagnosis mostly because they lived that the term belonged to the realm of medicine. In fact, the pros and cons of the use of the term was debated by other health professionals including those in the medical professions. Originally, nursing curriculum was organized around diseases and medical conditions. However, starting mid-xis on to early ass nursing leaders and educators started to revise the curriculum around client-centered problems (Carpenter, 1989). It was in the early gs when the term nursing diagnosis came into being. Creative nursing leaders and educators formulated nursing diagnosis and wrote individualized nursing care plan. However, professional nursing, notably the American Nurses Association, was at first not supportive Of the use Of the diagnosis label for the reason mentioned earlier. The works of Henderson, Abdullah and other theorists, encouraged nursing in terms of patient problems and the subsequent use of the term nursing diagnosis. By the ass and xis, activities concerning nursing diagnosis increased. There was an increase in the number of articles in nursing literature which supported the use of nursing diagnosis. In 1973, the first conference of Nursing Diagnosis was held to establish a classification system. In 1982, the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (AND), was established. The purpose of AND was to develop, refine and promote a taxonomy of nursing diagnostic terminology of general use tort professional nursing (Kim, 1984). The American Nurses Association (ANA), has officially sanctioned AND as the organization to govern the development of classification system of nursing diagnosis (Carpenter, 1989), Presently, practicing nurses and educators use AND nursing diagnosis taxonomy as guidelines in developing individualized nursing care plans for their patients. (see Appendix for Namedropping diagnosis as of 1 992) The process involved in formulating nursing diagnosis includes analysis and interpretation Of data gathered during the assessment phase, identification of clients need and problems, and finally, formulating the nursing diagnosis. In the assessment phase, data were collected from a variety Of sources, validated and sorted out into clusters. From the clustered data, the nurse guided by her own knowledge and experienced, interprets. She recognizes patterns and trends, and draws conclusions from patients response. When a relationship among patterns is identified, a list of client. Centered problem or needs begins to merge. Thus, one can see that the formulation of nursing diagnosis makes use of diagnostic process. Aside from improving communication among nurses, nursing diagnosis also improves communication between nurses and clients. Nursing diagnoses facilitate communication in several ways: the list of nursing diagnoses is used as reference to understand clients health care needs; Nursing diagnoses provide consistency in communicating about clients level of wellness and discharge planning: nursing diagnoses encourage nurses to prioritize and therefore, help them to develop their organizational skill. Planning, Planning is a category of nursing behavior in which client-centered goals are established and strategies are designed to achieve the goal ( Potter and Perry, I gal The primary purpose of the planning step of the nursing process is to design a plan of care for the client data, once implemented, results in the prevention or resolution Of clients health problems ( Taylor, 1996) The three basic types of planning critical to comprehensive nursing care are: Initial, ongoing problem oriented and discharge. The initial plan is developed by the nurse who performs the admission nursing history and the physical assessment. This plan addresses each problem in the prioritize nursing diagnosis and identifies priorities, Standardized plans can be used as bases for planning, but the plan itself should be individualized. Ongoing problem oriented planning is carried out why any nurse who interacts with the client. Its chief purpose is to keep the plan up to date. At this stage of planning, nursing diagnoses are stated more clearly and new diagnoses and new goals are added when needed. Discharge planning is best carried out by the nurse who has worked more closely with the client and family and in conjunction tit other members of the health team.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Poor brand image LÃ¢â¬â¢ Oreal Group is faced with a challenge in the introduction of two products in Netherlands. The two products include Belle Couleur and Synergie. LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group sales have been on an upward trend as a result of the large size of market for cosmetic products. In France, its domestic market, the firm has witnessed a 10.2% growth in sales which is equivalent to 9.67 billion Euros (Mann 2010, 6).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Nederland B.V specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In its quest to attain its profit maximization objective, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team has made a decision to venture the Dutch market. Introduction of the new product was to be undertaken by Laboratories Garnier which was its major competitor. Despite Laboratories Garnier being recognized in France prior to its acquisition, very few Dutch customers knew of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products. This arises f rom the fact that Laboratories Garnier had not established a strong brand image in Netherlands. The low brand image in the market limits the probability of the two products succeeding. In its decision to expand its operations within Netherlands, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group management team should conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the two products in order to determine the probability of success. The management team should undertake this by only introducing products with identifiable differential advantage in the market. LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group management team is faced with a challenge on how to ensure that the product penetrate the market. Key issue The key issue facing the firm is lack of awareness of GarnierÃ¢â¬â¢s products through which the firm intends to introduce its products. In addition, the two products are facing stiff competition from other established competitors. The firm is faced with a challenge of attracting customers to purchase the new product. This arises from the fact that customers in the Dutch market feel attached to their traditional brands which makes them reluctant to try new beauty products. Competitors in the Dutch skin care market have a well established customer loyalty. The loyalty resulted from the effective distribution strategy adopted.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Personalized service is one of the ways through which firms in the beauty industry can create customer loyalty. In addition, some of the players in the industry are multinational and regional companies which are widely recognized in the market. In comparison to these firms, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group has a relatively low competitive advantage. According to Jones (2010, 359), the beauty industry is very competitive as a result of the high rate of innovation resulting from increased research and development. Lack of an effective market penetration and promotion strateg y poses a threat in the introduction of the two products. Evaluation If the firm does not formulate an effective market penetration strategy for its products, there is a high probability that the firm will perform poorly in terms of sales. The resultant effect is that its long term survival will be threatened. The Dutch market is feasible for the firm to introduce its products. One of the key factors which are enhancing the market feasibility is the demographic characteristics of the population. Aging is one of the factors which have contributed to an increment in the rate of consumption for anti-aging products (Patzer 2006, 47). A significant proportion of Dutch women are aging. There are projections that this trend will continue into the future. By 2020, it is estimated that the number of individuals aged 65 years and above of the total population will increase to 18% from its 2010 projection level of 14.9% (Schroots, Ballesteros and Rudinger1999, 83). Introduction of Synergie and Belle Couleur beauty products stands a high probability of success considering that they are anti-aging skin and hair products. This means that the two products are in line with the customer requirement. In addition, successful introduction of the two products in the Dutch market is paramount considering the shift in role amongst the female gender. Females are venturing in various careers leading into an increment in their disposable income. Increase in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ disposable income results into an increment in consumer purchasing power (Lamb, Hair and McDaniel 2008, 365). Due to an upward shift in their disposable income, the Dutch women have increased their daily consumption for beauty products.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Nederland B.V specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This represents a significant shift in consumers purchasing behavior considering the fact that the Dutch women used t o purchase beauty products such as facial creams two times a year on average. Whilst the market feasibility for LÃ¢â¬â¢ Oreal Group in Netherlands is high, it is vital for the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team to consider the most effective way of introducing the two products in the market and also create market awareness effectively. Possible considerations Promotion plays an important role in the operation of a firm (Botha, Strydom and Brink 2005, 135). As a result, promotion strategy has been integrated as one of the key components of strategic marketing by firms in various economic sectors in their quest to attain their profit maximization objective. Through a well formulated promotional strategy, a firm is able to create awareness of its products and services to its prospective customers. Considering the reluctant nature of Dutch women to try new beauty products, developing an effective promotional strategy is paramount. This arises from the fact that increased awareness of the p roducts characteristics and benefits will play a significant role in creating customer confidence. There is a high probability of the products succeeding amongst the Dutch women considering the increment in demand for beauty products which have Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ characteristics. Considering the fact that Laboratories Garnier does not have a well developed brand image in Netherlands, it is vital for LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group to consider developing a promotional strategy will enhance its product awareness. According to Strydom and Brink (2005, 135), product awareness is very important in the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision making process (Mills and Law 2005, 29). Product and service awareness plays a significant role in the consumers purchasing pattern. The more the consumers are aware of a product, the high the probability of them making a purchase. With regard to beauty products in Netherlands, their success in the market is directly related to their brand image. Therefore, if the brand i mage is low, there is a high probability that the product will not succeed. The fact that most Dutch women are not conversant with the product description of French beauty products underscores the importance of creating product awareness.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apart from development of a product awareness strategy, it is also important for the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team to consider improving customer product loyalty. Customer loyalty will play a significant role in ensuring repeat purchase behavior of the customers. To create customer loyalty, it is vital for the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team to ensure that the research and development being undertaken results into development of beauty products which meet the market demand. Increment in the intensity of competitiveness within the retail environment presents a challenge to firms (Ranchhord and Maradi 2007, 77). This arises from the fact that competition leads into a reduction in customer switching cost (Egan and Thomas 1998, 68). Ranchhord and Maradi are of the opinion that customer loyalty is a fundamental issue in such a case. Considering the competitive nature of the beauty industry in Netherlands due to existence of other multinational companies such as Procter and Gamble Company, creation of customer loyalty is vital in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to position itself effectively in the market. The resultant effect is that the firm will be able to develop a high competitive advantage for it to survive in the market. Alternatives A number of alternatives could be considered to address the key issue: That LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group faces a challenge in introducing its two beauty products (Synergie and Belle Colourie) as a result of poor brand image of Garnier. Considering the market feasibility in Netherlands beauty industry, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group should ensure that it capitalizes on the market opportunities presented and introduce the two products. In order to effectively penetrate the market, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team should consider the following alternatives. The firm should not introduce the two products via Laboratories Garnier considering its low brand image in Netherlands. Alternatively, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s management team should consider outsou rcing the services of well established marketing agencies in Netherlands. This will increase the probability of the customers accepting the product. Evaluation Undertaking product introduction process by itself is a wise decision for the firm to consider in is effort to penetrate the new market niche. This is due to the fact that the firm will develop an upper-edge in understanding the market dynamics. On the other hand, distributing the products via intermediaries will also be of benefit to the firm. This is due to the fact that the local agents will be conversant with the market. A comprehensive criterion should be used in selecting the intermediary to carry a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s product in the foreign market. According to Perner (2008, 3) selection of the firm to carry a firms product in its introduction phase is a key determinant in the productÃ¢â¬â¢s success or failure. Perner asserts that if the product is not amongst the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s preferred products, chances of the product s ucceeding are limited. Recommendations To ensure that introduction of the two products is successful; LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s management team should consider a number of issues. The firm should consider incorporating the concept of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in an effort to create sustainable market awareness. Integrated marketing communication will ensure that there is effective and efficient creation of market awareness. This arises from the fact that both traditional and emerging market communication models are integrated (Kitchen and Pelsmacker 2004, 45). As a result, a considerable number of individual customers will be aware of the productÃ¢â¬â¢s market existence. Incorporation of IMC will ensure the customers access sufficient product information. Considering the fact that the product can be consumed by both the young and elderly consumers, integration of IMC will be effective in ensuring that the customers access the product information. Sufficient prod uct information will enable the firm to dispel any fears which the customers may have regarding its products. The resultant effect is that there will be increment in the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ level of confidence to enable them incorporate the new product in the process of making decisions regarding consumption of beauty products. In order to develop a repeat purchase behavior amongst the customers, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group management team should consider implementing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in its operation. This will ensure that that all its operations are focused at ensuring that the customers attain a high level of satisfaction. The effect is that the firm will be able to attain customer inertia. This means that the probability of customers switching to other products will be minimized. To ensure maximization of the benefits associated with the CRM strategy, LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group management team should consider implementing the CRM software. The software should be linked to the internet so as to enable it access customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feedback efficiently. CRM software will act as a link between the customers and the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing team. This means that there is a high probability of marketing team understanding changes in customer product requirement. Depending on market feedback, it will be possible for the firm to conduct product innovations effectively to suite the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements. Reference List Botha, Johan, Strydom, Johan and Brink, Annekie. 2005. Introduction to marketing. Chicago: Juta and Company Limited. Egan, Colin and Thomas, Michael. 1998. The CIM handbook of strategic marketing. New Jersey: Butterworth Heinemann. Jones, Geoffrey. 2010. Beauty imagined: A history of the global beauty industry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kitchen, Paul. and Pelsmacker, Peter. 2004. Integrated marketing communication: aÃ primer. London: Routledge. Lamb, Charles, Hair, Jones. and McDaniel, Collins. 2008. Essentials of marketing. Ne w York: Cengage Learning. Mann, Rebecca. 2010. The LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Group reports solid first-half sales.Ã https://www.moodiedavittreport.com/the-loreal-group-reports-solid-first-half-sales/ . Mills, Juline and Law, Rob. 2005. Handbook of consumer behavior: tourism and theÃ internet. London: Routledge. Patzer, Gordon. 2006. The power and paradox of physical attractiveness. London: Universal-Publishers. Perners, Lars. 2010. Introduction to marketing. Los Angeles: University of South California. Ranchod, Ashk and Marandi, Ebi. 2007. CIM coursebook 07/08 strategic marketing inÃ practice. New Jersey: Butterworth-Heinemann. Schroots, James, Ballesteros, Francis and Rudinger, Gerrad. 1999. Aging in Europe. Oxford: IOS Press. This essay on LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Nederland B.V was written and submitted by user Edward Sullivan to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
The costs and benefits of incurring an annual federal budget deficit Federal budget deficit occurs when the government expenditure exceeds the government income through revenue in a fiscal year. For instance, the last year the US federal deficit was $ 1.57 trillion, and this year, it is estimated to come to $1.267 trillion (Amadeo 2).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The costs and benefits of incurring an annual federal budget deficit specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The problem with this deficit is that every year, it is added to the already existing Federal Debt which currently stands at over $ 14 trillion. Two thirds of this Federal Debt is the money owed by the federal government to the public, private companies and even foreign governments who bought treasury bills, notes and even bonds. The remaining third is money owed by the federal government to itself in the form of government account securities usually from trust funds, thus, they are to be paid back after a certain period of time, when the baby boomers retire (Chantrill 8). There are several consequences that arise as a result of federal budget deficit which must be explored keenly to establish the dangers that lie ahead. Every fiscal year, the budget is bound to go one way or another. There can be a deficit one year, and the following year, the state may enjoy a budget surplus. However, in the US federal budget, surplus has been elusive. For instance, between the years 1929 and 1969, the federal budget recorded a surplus only nine times, and it had never happened for three consecutive years at one time (Cashell 5). First, the federal budget fails to distinguish between operating and capital expenditures. Operating expenditures are those incurred in running government and funding the services it provides; capital expenditures relate to purchases of long lived buildings and equipment, and include expenditures on infrastructure. The failure to distinguish these types of expenditures is at odds with accepted accounting practice, and is at odds with the accounting practices adopted by corporate America. It amounts to claiming that expenditures on roads and buildings are equivalent to consumption, and that these assets are fully used up in the year they are purchased. The result is to overstate spending, and give government an air of profligacy. If capital expenditures were appropriately capitalized, both government expenditures and the deficit would be lower (Palley 4). Figure 1 and table 1 below show the budget deficit over the years. The table 1 elaborates the federal deficits in figures between the year 2000 and the projected deficit up to the year 2016.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 1 Source: usgovernmentspending .com Table 1 Federal Deficit Fiscal Years 2000 to 2016 Year GDP-US $ billion Federal Deficit -fed pct GDP 2 000 9884.17 -2.39 a 2001 10218 -1.25 a 2002 10572.4 1.49 a 2003 11067.8 3.41 a 2004 11788.9 3.50 a 2005 12554.5 2.54 a 2006 13310.9 1.87 a 2007 13969.3 1.15 a 2008 14270.5 3.21 a 2009 14014.8 10.08 a 2010 14551.8 8.89 a 2011 15079.6 8.61 a 2012 15812.5 6.96 b 2013 16752.4 4.58 b 2014 17782.2 3.62 b 2015 18804.1 3.23 b Source: usgovernmentspending .com From a position of near budget balance in 1970, the budget went into deficit. In part because of an economic contraction beginning in late 1973 and ending in early1975, the surplus fell to -4.2% (in other words, a deficit equal to 4.2%) of GDP in1976. Another economic downturn began in mid-1981 and ended in late 1982 contributing to another drop in the surplus, to -6% of GDP in 1983. Since then, with a brief reversal attributable to an economic contraction in 1990 and 1991, the surplus increased steadily until 2000. In FY2001, the surplus fell from 2.4% of GDP the previous year to 1.3% of GDP. In 2002, there was a budget deficit (a negative surplus) of 1.5% of GDP and by FY2004 it had reached 3.6% of GDP. While the budget has clearly been influenced by changing economic conditions there nevertheless appeared to be a tendency towards smaller and smaller surpluses (at the time they were characterized as increasing deficits, which is the same thing) between1970 and 1983. Through 2000, that trend had been reversed, but over each of the next four years the surplus declined (Cashell 5).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The costs and benefits of incurring an annual federal budget deficit specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Deficit spending increases the debt of the country every year. The argument put forward it is that deficit spending would help to increase the economic growth which is partially true in the short term, especially in times of recession like it has been experienced in the last three years . Ho wever the final result of deficit spending is never pleasant as the economy experiences a lot of damage due to the interest rates that have to be paid in the long run. This interest is added to the debt every year, actually about 5% of the budget every year goes to interest payments. For instance, in 2009, the interest accrued amounted to $383 billion which had actually reduced from $451 billion only due to lower interest rates at the time in the fiscal year 2008. Sadly, it is predicted that the figure will be four times larger in the year 2020 which is estimated to $840 billion (Amadeo 3). When this happens, the creditors will start doubting the ability of the government to repay the loans and, hence, will look at it as a great risk. As a result, they will be justified to ask for greater returns in terms of increased interest rates which will cost the government even more money and slow down the economy. Other measures to counter the problem have proved futile due to various econom ic back lashes. For example, an attempt by the government to let the value of the dollar dip so as to lower the amount of debt payable backfires since investors become less willing to purchase the treasury bonds at the same time (Cashell 6). By borrowing from the social security fund, the government shoots itself in the foot. This is in the view that paying the debt would be an uphill task when the time finally comes since the government is forced to borrow from the same kitty every year. The consequences of this are that borrowing from the social security would be stopped and considered that this accounts for more than a third of the deficit which would be great to blow to the government. Evidently, this would slow down the very economy that gets a boost from deficit spending (Cashell 7). Once, Thomas Jefferson said that I place economy among the first and most important virtues, and public debt as the greatest of dangers. To preserve our independence, we must not let our rulers lo ad us with perpetual debt (Forbes.com, 6). What he wanted to illustrate is the fact that running a balanced budget had more advantages than running a deficit spending.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Several factors support this saying since balance budgeting is within the reach of federal government. In the year 1998, the budget office of the US congressional forecasted shows the federal budget to be in effective balance, with a projected deficit of just $5 billion this year- a trivial percentage of an estimated $8.5 trillion gross domestic product (Forbes.com 5). What followed that is that the government was able to balance the budget without causing any negative complication. One measure economists use to assess fiscal policy is the structural, or standardized-employment, budget. This measure estimates, at a given time, what outlays, receipts, and the surplus or deficit would be if the economy were at full employment.5 It is a way of separating changes in the budget totals that are due to changes in overall economic conditions from those changes that are the result of deliberate changes in tax and spending policy. Changes in the standardized-employment surplus reflect changes in policy and are not affected by variations in underlying economic conditions. For example, if the economy is less than fully employed, then the standardized measure of outlays is less than actual outlays, standardized receipts are higher than actual receipts, and the standardized budget deficit would be smaller than the actual deficit. Economists track the standardized-employment surplus as a percentage of potential GDP to assess if fiscal policy is simulative or contradicting. As the economy grows, outlays and receipts tend to rise as well. Comparing the budget to GDP filters out changes due to variations in the overall size of the economy. Potential GDP is an estimate of what the total value of production of goods and services would be if labor and capital resources were fully employed. Using potential GDP as a base for comparison avoids the problem of cyclical factors masking changes in fiscal policy. A decrease in the standardized budget deficit relative to potential GDP woul d be considered indicative of a contractionary fiscal policy. Similarly, an increase in the standardized budget deficit as a percentage of potential GDP would be indicative of a simulative fiscal policy (Cashell 8). Amadeo, Kimberly.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"How the U.S. Federal Debt and Deficit Differ and How They Affect EachÃ Other,Ã¢â¬ 2011. Web. Cashell, Brian W. Ã¢â¬Å"The Economics of the Federal Budget Deficit.Ã¢â¬ CRS Report forÃ Congress Journal, Vol 2, (2005) P12-13. Chantrill, Christopher. Ã¢â¬Å"US Government Spending History from 1900 USÃ¢â¬ , 2011. Web. Forbes.com. Ã¢â¬Å"Thoughts on the Business of LifeÃ¢â¬ , 2011. Web.14 November 2011https://www.forbes.com/quotes/ Palley, Thomas. Ã¢â¬Å"The Sorry Politics of the Balanced Budget Amendment,Ã¢â¬ Ã Challenge Journal, 40, May/June 1997, 5 13.
Friday, November 22, 2019
How to get Your CDL in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi This article is useful for anyone who wants to get a CDL in Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. If you want to learn about earning a CDL at other states, we have put together a comprehensive guide on how to get a commercial driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license in every state of the country. AlabamaBefore You Apply for Your CDL1. Get youÃ doctor to fill outÃ the current Department of Transportation Medical Examination Report (Form 649-F)2. Learn or reviewÃ the rules and regulations of commercial driving. You can study these in AlabamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Commercial Driver License Manual.How to ApplyTake the following documents to your nearest Driver License Division office (make sure to research ahead for one that handles CDLs!):A current Alabama driverÃ¢â¬â¢s licenseA Social Security card or other proof of Social Security numberYour current DOT medical certificate (from above)Proof of insurance for the testing vehicle if you are taking the skills test$25 for the written test, $20 for the skills testL icense fees vary depending on your desiredÃ class of license. Class A costs $66.25; Class B costs $56.25; Class Ccosts $36.25. If you are purchasing a CDLÃ or a license to operate only a school bus, the fee is $36.25.What to Expect When TestingFirst, on test day,Ã you will take one or more knowledge tests (which are written), depending on the license and endorsements you want.Then, if you pass the knowledge tests, you qualify to take the skills test (which is a driving test). Another option at this point is choosing toÃ be issued a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s license, which will allow you to practice drivingÃ a rig with a licensed commercial driver in the passenger seat.When you feel Ã ready to take the on-road driving test, you can make another appointment atÃ the CDL licensing office.Ã The driving skills test includes: vehicle inspection (where you mustÃ prove your vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s safety and show your inspection skills), vehicle control (you will be asked to drive forward, backward, and in turns, in a smallÃ area), and the actual driving test (this tests how well you knowÃ Ã signs, driving laws, and regulations).ArkansasBefore you take your certification exams, you must assess your driving record. If you have any serious offenses, likeÃ DUI, you may be disqualified.The Knowledge TestsYou must pass the written knowledge test before you can take your road skills test. In order to familiarize yourself with the content of the exam, study the ArkansasÃ CDL ManualÃ to learn about driver safety, cargo safety, equipment, traffic rules, inspection procedures, and hazardous materials.To bring on test day:Documents that prove your age and identity$42, which is the fee for your CDLIf you haul hazardous materials, you will need to have federalÃ background and fingerprint check.The Road Skills TestAfter you have passed the written tests, you are ready for the road skills test.Ã On this test, you will be asked to perform driver tasks including pre-t rip inspections, changing lanes, tying down cargo, and maneuvering intersections.Ã The Arkansas CDL Manual review everything you will be tested on- review the criteria before test day so you are familiar with the tasks you will face.RequirementsYou must self-certify one of the following driving categories with the Arkansas DMV:Non-Excepted InterstateExcepted InterstateNon-Excepted IntrastateExcepted IntrastateIf you choose Non-Excepted Interstate, you must provide the DMV with a federal medical certificate.MississippiTo obtain a CDL in Mississippi, you must hold aÃ Regular Class R driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license. You must also obtain a current medical card when applying.Testing for the CDLNext stop is to take and pass the written and skills tests. All the information you need to know about the exam is in the Professional DriverÃ¢â¬â¢s Manual, which you can find at anyÃ driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license officeÃ throughout the state. You can schedule an appointment for the driving test either Ã onlineÃ or by phone.What You Must BringYour valid Mississippi driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license, a CDL learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s permit, and your completed application for your desired CDLAnother driver to accompany you who holds the same class CDL license (or greater) as the one you seekA current medical cardThe same class of vehicle you will be driving once you obtain your CDL (it must pass inspection before any tests will be administered)A Social Security cardProof of residency (electric or water bill, lease agreement, vehicle-registration receipt, mortgage documents, homestead exemption receipt, bank statement, notarized employer verification on company letterhead (with a phone number) that states your address)Appropriate feesOut-of-state applicants applying for a Mississippi CDL can use their valid driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license from another stateNote: If your job entails hauling hazardous materials, you must undergo a background check. You will have to complete aÃ DriverÃ¢â¬â¢s License Hazard ous Materials Endorsement ApplicationÃ and pay a fee.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Assignment - Essay Example ticipation of clients on product trials includes compatibility with current use, complexity, relative advantage of the product, communicability, and divisibility. The Hot cider beverage offered by the business meets high compatibility and relative advantage factors of trail barriers allowing the business to offer sampling and product testing within the first two days. To induce trial, free samples will be available for the consumers resulting in no economic and experience cost to the customers allowing them to participate in the trial. Skimming will be used to ensure high market share is gained early during the launch stage, meet the market needs of the product but within the means to ensure the business is not priced out of the market. This will be compensated through the provision of excellent customer service, quality goods, and the best customer experience t the stall. Different measures will be used to stimulate repeat purchase in the market including ensuring the adequate supply at all times to meet anticipated repeat clients to avoid disappointing them. Offering quality customer service and being responsive to the needs of the customers coupled to the quality products will be the other measures that will be harnessed to ensure access of repeat customers. The other measure through which the business will ensure repeat customer is offering of long discounts to allow the consumers to have access to the products at slightly lower
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Strategic analysis of a company and its competitive environment - Essay Example The company capitalises in the distribution high quality, stylish and great value home products and clothing. The business is also popular in selling food products, fashioned clothes, gifts, and home furnishing. The company has also establishment in financial service segment. In addition to coming up with effective means that can support its development, the business success can also be linked to its affordable prices of its products. In addition, the business vision is to offer great quality value and services. The business popularity is largely enhanced by its quality products as well as its ability to distribute products that meets international standards. The current success of Marks & Spencer can also be attributed to its effective and operational management strategies as well as it reliable and affordable promotion strategies (Burns, 2008, p. 12). Internal Analysis of the Firm Political stability in United Kingdom has proved to be effective in facilitating the success of Marks & Spencer. However, the Iraq civil conflict largely affects the activities and operations in Marks & Spencer. This is owing to the fact that, the business has several branches in Iraq. The political changes in United Kingdom have also affected the activities and operations of the business. ... The existing social situation in United Kingdom has also changed the customer concept in the market. This has forced the company to figure out and come up with new fashions that will meet the interest of its customers. In addition, the price sensitivity has produced a more competitive environment. Although a good number of the business products are old fashioned, the company has adopted new strategies of increasing its sales with limited loss. The new technology has also been vital in communicating new products to its customers. The company is currently relying on online services to promote its products in new markets. The new technology is also useful in identifying products that can meet the demands of its customers. Just like any other business in global market, Marks & Spencer has also been significantly affected by global warming. To counter the impact of environmental challenges, the company has introduced mechanisms that could be used to advance business operations. For instan ce, the business has embarked on a mechanism that aims at recycling plastic products. Marks & Spencer also sell legally acceptable products to its customers. In addition, the business sells high quality products that meet the set international and local standards (King, 2007, p.21). Compared to other competitors in the market, Marks & Spencer competitive rivalry is high. Studies have confirmed that Marks & Spencer faces high rivalry in clothing sector from new entrance in the market. The company is also facing huge competition in food industry for Sainsbury and Tesco. The company bargaining power of buyers is also high. This is owing to the fact that other huge retailers in their area of coverage surround the
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Eastern Orthodox Essay I. Origin The Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholicism were branches of the same bodyÃ¢â¬âthe One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church until 1054 AD, which is the date of the first major division and the beginning of Ã¢â¬Å"denominationsÃ¢â¬ in Christianity. The Christian Church divided into two Churches, East and West. Both Churches believe that they are the original Church established by Jesus Christ and the Apostles, and they disapprove each other. The Church in the East added Ã¢â¬Å"orthodoxÃ¢â¬ , which comes from the Greek word Ã¢â¬Å"orthodxiaÃ¢â¬ , to show that they retain the original teachings and traditions. Every Church in the Eastern Orthodox system can trace their roots back to the five early Christianity centerÃ¢â¬âthe Roman Church, the Jerusalem Church, Antioch, the Alexandrian Church and the Church of Constantinople. Although all Orthodox Churches recognize the Patriarch of Constantinople as the ecumenical Patriarch and the supreme leader, the Churches are independent of each other in the mutual recognition of state instead of entirely united. Disagreements between the two branches of ChristianityÃ¢â¬âEastern Orthodox and Roman CatholicismÃ¢â¬âhad long existed even before the division, and increased throughout the first millennium. Their disputes include issues pertaining to the nature of the Holy Spirit, the use of icons in worship, and the correct date to celebrate Easter. Also, the Eastern mindset inclined more toward philosophy, mysticism and ideology. They reject rationalism, as they believe that unless God speaks out, humans can not know him through reason. The Western outlook guided more by a practical and legal mentality, a perfect example being the Summa Theologica by St. Thomas which successfully fused Aristotelian philosophy with ideology. The Catholics believe that humans can one day see the true body of the Lord through rationality. With these disputes worsening and the gaps widening, separation was inevitable. The slow process of it was encouraged in 330 AD when Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantium and called in Constantinople. After he died, the Roman empire was divided by his two sons into the Eastern portion, which was ruled from Constantinople, and the Western portion, which was ruled from Rome. The formal split took place in 1045 AD when Pope Leo IX, leader of the Roman Church at the time, excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius, leader of the Eastern Church. Cerularius then condemned the Pope in mutual excommunication. Michael Cerularius was the Patriarch of Constantinople from 1043-1058 AD, and played a prominent role in the East-West Schism. In 1045 he wrote a letter to the Pope claiming the title Ã¢â¬Å"ecumenical patriarchÃ¢â¬ and addressing Pope Leo as Ã¢â¬Å"brotherÃ¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ . It can be argued that it was this letter that initiated the events which followed. At the time the two primary disputes were RomeÃ¢â¬â¢s claim to a universal papal supremacy and the adding of the word filioque to the Nicene Creed. Filioque is a Latin word which means Ã¢â¬Å"and from the SonÃ¢â¬ . By inserting it to the Nicene Creed during the 6th century, the phrase pertaining to the origin of the Holy Spirit Ã¢â¬Å"who proceeds from the FatherÃ¢â¬ was changed to Ã¢â¬Å"who proceeds from the Father and the SonÃ¢â¬ . The change was made to emphasize ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s divinity, but was strongly objected by the Eastern Christians, as they not only opposed any alteration of anything by the first ecumenical council, but also disagreed with its new meaning. Eastern Christians believe that both the Holy Spirit and the Son have their origin in the Father. During the time of the Crusades beginning in 1095, Rome joined the East in fight against the Turks to defend the Holy Land. But by the end of the Forth Crusade in 1204, all hope for potential reconciliation between the two Churches was over as the hostility between them continued to worsen. The Eastern and Western Churches remain divided and separate until present day. II. Institutional Structure Ã¢â¬Å"The Orthodox Church is evangelical, but not Protestant. It is orthodox, but not Jewish. It is Catholic, but not Roman. It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t non-denominationalÃ¢â¬âit is pre-denominational. It has believed, taught, preserved, defended and died for the Faith of the Apostles since the day of Pentecost 2000 years ago.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âSteve Robinson The Orthodox Catholic Church is the second largest Christian Church in the world and the religious denomination of the majority of the population in Russia, Greece, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Cyprus. Orthodoxy plays a smaller role in a dozen other countries: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and the U. S. It also consists of churches in scattered presence in other countries. The Orthodox Church has an Episcopal organizational structure where consecrated bishops are the chief ecclesiastical officers in each diocese and have the power to ordain priests. The Church believes in the Apostolic Succession, which means that the consecration of its bishops can be traced back to JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ apostles. The Orthodox Church is composed of several self-governing ecclesial bodies, each geographically and nationally distinct but theologically unified. Each self-governing body, often but not always encompassing a nation, is shepherded by a Holy Synod whose duty, among other things, is to preserve and teach the apostolic and patristic traditions and related church practices. III. Basic Belief System In Orthodox history, events that have transformed the external appearance of the Orthodox worldÃ¢â¬âthe capture of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem by Arab Muslims; the burning of Kiev by the Mongols; the two sacks of Constantinople; the October RevolutionÃ¢â¬âhave never broken the inward continuity of the Orthodox Church. TheÃ greatest characterization of the Orthodox faith is its antiquity, its apparent changelessness, its continuity with the Apostolic Church and that it follows the faith and practices defined by the first seven Ecumenical Councils. For the Orthodox Christians, the doctrine of the Holy Trinity underlies all theology and spirituality. Salvation is personal and underlines particularity, yet also communal and implies sharing; there is a uniqueness and wholeness in the human person, in humanity and in creation. It is also on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity that the councilor and hierarchical structure of the Orthodox Church rests. The mystery of the Trinity is revealed in the supreme act of love, the Incarnation of the divine Ã¢â¬Å"Word that became fleshÃ¢â¬ , assuming and healing humanity and creation entirely. Participation in the defied humanity of Jesus Christ is the ultimate goal of the Christian life, accomplished through the Holy Spirit. In the seven Sacraments and in the life of the Church, each person is called to theosis or deification, for Ã¢â¬Å"God became human in order that humanity might be divinizedÃ¢â¬ . When expressing these beliefs, the Orthodox look for consistency with Scripture and Tradition, as manifested in the life of the Church and the early Church Fathers, but will search also for new formulations of this tradition. External criteria of truth are lacking; for Orthodox Christians seek the living experience of truth accessible in the communion of Saints. Thus they are reluctant to define matters of faith with too much precision, in the firm conviction that truth is never exhausted. The apophatic or Ã negative approach safeguards the transcendence of God even while designating His immanence; it also affirms the uniqueness of each personÃ¢â¬âdivine and humanÃ¢â¬âthat they may never be reduced to anything less than a mystery. Integral to the long history and tradition of the Orthodox Christian faith are the Icons, which further reflect the divine glory and beauty. The Incarnation of Christ implies that God became fully human and therefore accessible and describable. God is not only understood but, at the Incarnation, is looked upon and seen. An Orthodox Church is, therefore, filled with icons invariably depicting Christ or the Saints of the Church, and an Orthodox Christian kisses and assigns veneration to those depicted by them. Icons are never worshiped, and they are the Christian faith and histories depicted in images and constitute part of the transfigured cosmos. Today people tend to think of the Orthodox Church as a vast, world-wide institution. Yet the concept of universality as expressed in the local community is a fundamental principle of Orthodox doctrine. Each local Eucharist gathering is related on the principle of identity. IV. Morality Eastern Orthodoxy does not differ from the larger Christian principles of moral thought and action in any way, but does offer a unique view on Christianitys promised redemption. It teaches a doctrine of theosis, or unity with God, which is a kind of deification that is available to all. The Orthodox doctrine of theosis is grounded in several key New Testiment scriptures. In the epistles of Paul, he repeatedly describes the Christian life as life Ã¢â¬Å"in Christ.Ã¢â¬ In the Gospel of John, Jesus prayed, Ã¢â¬Å"My prayer is not for them alone. I pray also for those who will believe in me through their message, that all of them may be one, be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent meÃ¢â¬ (John 17:20-21). The idea of this mutual indwelling, God in us and we in God, is a constant theme in JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Gospel. In the Second Letter of Peter he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Through these he has given us his very great and precious promises, so that through them you may participate in the divine nature and escape the corruption in the world caused by evil desiresÃ¢â¬ (2 Peter 1:4) The goal of the Christian life, and its expected outcome, is to partake in the divine nature. This is theosis, or deification, and the idea merits special discussion so that its meaning is not distorted. The hoped-for mystical union between God and human is a true union, but it is a union with GodÃ¢â¬â¢s energies, not the divine essence. Humans remain fully human and distinct from God. But they become perfected in grace, so that every element of ego and selfishness disappears and they are able to reflect the divine light. Few Christians will experience theosis before the Day of Judgment, but on that day, Christians will be resurrected and glorified by God, clothed in a spiritual body that radiates the divine light. Still, deification begins in the here and now, in the daily lives of ordinary Christians. All Christians are called to follow Gods commandments, and as long as they try to do so, however weak their efforts may be, or however often they may fail, they become in some way deified. Deification begins in repentance, and is nurtured through the normal routines of the C hristian life. To become deified, the Christian should go to church, regularly participate in the sacraments, pray to God with honesty and great sincerity, read the Gospels, and follow the commandments. The most important commandments are love of God and neighbor. To love God is to live in and for others, which is why some of the greatest of the Eastern Orthodox saints are remembered for their service to others, such as St. Basil of Caesarea (c. 330-379) caring for the sick, or St. John the Almsgiver (d. 619) caring for the poor. Sincere dedication to following the commandments and living life within the church bears with it the promise of redemption fulfilled in the resurrection of a radiant body and soul. But Christians may look forward to even more than this. The Bible speaks of a new heaven and a new earth (Revelation 21:1) and of the hope that the creation itself will be redeemed (Romans 8:22). In these scriptures, Eastern Orthodoxy sees the promise of a cosmic redemption, in which all of material creation is transfigured. This belief in the redemption as deification rests in the Orthodox interpretation of the doctrine of the Incarnation. By choosing to become human, God became flesh and blood, thereby sanctifying material as well as immaterial creation. Because of this, all of material creation can look forward to its ultimate redemption, in which pain, death, and suffering will cease, along with hostility and enmity, and all of creation will be transfigured. The first fruits of this promise can already be seen as fulfilled in the divine power that works through the holy relics, in the divine presence in the icons, and in the radiant transfigured faces of the hesychasts. V. Worship The life of an Orthodox Christian can be seen as being composed of five cycles. First of all, there is the cycle of life, which embraces the whole life of a man from birth to death, and which consists in liturgical actions which are not repeated, occurring only once in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime. There are Holy Baptism, Holy Chrismation (equivalent to Confirmation in the West) and the Burial Service. In addition, there also belongs in this great cycle the Sacraments or Sacramental Blessings which bestow special grace for a particular office or vocation with the community. These are Holy Matrimony, the Monastic Tonsure and Holy Orders. Another major cycle which involves the entire life of an Orthodox Christian is the daily cycle of prayers and praises offered by the Church, once every twenty-four hours. These services express our remembrance of events which happened at certain hours and contain petitions relevant to these memories. In antiquity the day was considered to begin at sunset and divided according to the following order. Night began at 6 p.m. and was divided into four parts called watches, which means the time of changing guards: Evening (6 p.m. to 9 p.m.), Midnight (9 p.m. to 12 midnight), Cock-crow (12 midnight to 3 a.m.), and Morning (3 a.m. to 6 a.m.). Day began at 6 a.m. and was too divided into four watches (or hours): First Hour (6 a.m. to 9 a.m.), Third Hour (9 a.m. to 12 noon), Sixth Hour (12 noon to 0 3 p.m.), and Ninth Hour (3 p.m. to 6 p.m.).