Sunday, January 26, 2020
The Enduring Appeal of the Horror Genre What is your topic? Question? Sub-questions? (Not too many!) Hypothesis? What specific issues associated with your topic do you want to investigate (making sure they are capable of being investigated within the constraints of the MA calendar)? What sorts of data will you need to adequately address each of these issues? Why will this data help you in particular? From what sources (places, human subjects, texts, cultural phenomena?) will you obtain this data? How will you obtain the data? (Documentary search? Interviewing? Questionnaire? Observation? Media production? Reflection on practice?) How do you intend (in general terms) to record, manage and analyze this data? What analytical models and theories will you draw on? What will your timetable be month by month? Introduction: answers the Ã¢â¬Ëso what? question, convince reader you need to do this Literature Review: Contextualises your research. Answers the question:Ã Where do I fit? Research questions determined. Methodology: Determines the nature of your study design and theÃ methods you will use. Include how you approach the subject, methods, why, ethics, how you analysed data. Results, discussion, analysis: combined or separate, can be guided by questions Conclusion: Draws everything together and answers your researchÃ questions. Discusses limitation and future work. HORRORS ENDLESS CYCLE: AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE ENDURING APPEAL OF THE HORROR GENRE IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM. INTRODUCTION: The horror genre has deep roots in the classical studio era. Yet in important ways it also looks ahead to the post-classical period, a period of reduced levels of film production and correspondingly weakened genre identities. As a fantasy genre, horror departs in significant ways from the prevailing canons of representation in the classical Hollywood style, whether one takes that mode to be a form of realism or of melodrama. Horror has an identity as an unrespectable genre for an undiscriminating juvenile audience (or an audience that has its mind on other things), with strong roots in exploitation cinema, that has only fairly recently emerged as an attractive genre for large scale production at major studios. Finally, it has attracted significant critical attention in recent years, and in each case theories of postmodernism and Ã¢â¬â which is not always the same thing Ã¢â¬â currents in postmodern theory have played an important part in reconceiving the genre for audiences and film-makers alike. This critical interest is, I argue, related to the relative weakness in both cases of traditional semantic/syntactic matrices of generic identity, leading to a protean aspect that is well suited to exploiting marketplace currents and trends. That horror takes its core generic material from the body, both engines of contemporary critical enquiry and popular cultural debate has confirmed its relevance. (Barry Langford, Film Genre: Hollywood and Beyond, 2005) Why choose to live in fear? Today we get up, go to work, come home, watch TV and go to sleep. To combat the monotony we chase the death rush by other means, as perilous as base or bungee jumping, or as sanitised as roller coasters and theme parks, while for most the simple thrills of the horror movie are more than enough to satisfy and provide a little taste of fear. Thats just one theory. Another is that we watch horror movies because they offer us a challenge Ã¢â¬â to look fear and death in the face and survive the ordeal. The ascendance and growing popularity of horror cinema since the new millennium is certainly a fascinating trend in contemporary society, and one which is long overdue an in-depth and objective analysis. Through researching the appeal of the horror genre I shall look into the social and political climate into which these movies fell over the last ten years, and discuss the merits of the movies themselves or, in some cases, lack of them. (Marshall in Carolyn, 2008). The horror film, throughout its shady, rebellious history has earned more money than respect. Though these days there are film festivals, websites, books, magazines, Masters theses, and even film distributors devoted entirely to the consumption of the dark side of entertainment, the mainstream media and self-appointed intelligentsia of pontificators cluck their tongues and blame the fall of society on these nasty little gutter-dwellers we call our own. In truth, the horror film may be the best mirror of the worlds zeitgeist we have, reflecting, rather than creating, the ills and crises of the planets collective psychology. Its been said before and it bears repeating that horror is to cinema what rock and roll is to music: rude, abrasive, pushy and anti-establishment. No wonder, then, that it is so embraced by the young. What better way to break away from parental chains than to blast distorted guitars on the stereo, and revel in disemboweled damsels in distress on the widescreen plasma? The young are immortal, right? And who can blame them for gathering tribally in front of the Cineplex screens to cheer on the latest adventures of the newest teen-gutting horror franchise star? They know its not real, that they are thumbing their noses at mortality. Yes, deep-seated fears are faced on the screen, from a safe distance, allowing the audience to safely play tag with what scares them. A good horror movie has all the elements of a good drama: creative storytelling: compelling characters placed in relatable plots, an artists point of view. But a really good horror movie, the best horror movie, can take you far beyond: it can take you to a place youve never been, a shadowy chamber of the mind outside of your worldly experience, with story twists and turns that will make you squirm until the lights come on and you emerge victoriously from your two hours in the dark. A great horror movie can be a revelatory experience. A great way to take societys pulse is through the arts and entertainment of the time. And the horror film makes a great thermometer. As I intend to examine in this study, a national or global health is particularly well represented by its fright films. At times of political upheaval, war, depression and recession, the horror cycle runs to a particular high. Adam Simons remarkable documentary, The American Nightmare, about the horror boom of the 1970s arising out of the international upheaval that surrounded the war in Vietnam. Is a terrific examination of how one relates to the other. But as we close in on the end of the new millenniums first decade, we find ourselves in another long-lasting terror boom in a post 9/11 world. Obviously, most of these films are not artistic reflections of social strife, or the primal screams of the mad artist who paints in blood. As they have, with everything else that makes money, the corporate kings have co-opted the popular cycle on their own terms. Where brilliant artists contribute excellent and exciting new ventures, the screens are also littered with the latest iterations of franchises nobody asks for, but are easy to market. In recent years, its been far easier for an industry that isnt interested in or has any understanding of the horror genre to take familiar titles, and remake and sequelise them until the law of diminishing returns proves itself, and they move on to the next title. There are great horror films being made today amidst the dross. But its not quality thats being discussed here, though it obviously plays a part. Its that there is a new and ravening audience for the spilling of blood. Again, theres nothing new about this: filmgoers filled the cinemas during the Depression to see the Frankenstein monster toss an innocent little girl into the pond, to see Count Dracula sup on the blood of lovely blondes; during World War II, Frankensteins monster met everyone from the Wolf Man to Abbott and Costello, and Universal cranked out one monster fest after another, while a quiet, well-real producer named Val Lewton churned out intelligent, atmospheric shockers for RKO; in the 1950s, when the Cold War and Air Raid duck-and-cover drills were the order of the day, nuclear tests gave birth to the giant ants of Them, the humungous grasshoppers of The Beginning of the End, and the radioactivity-breathing Japanese dragon beast of Godzilla; the early sixties turned i nternal, with human monsters like Norman Bates infesting our souls and killing on behalf of the sexual battle within the newly blossoming psychological terror train; the Vietnamese apocalypses were brutal, fed as they were by nightly news imagery of burning bodies and human torture, in a toe-in-the-water test of loosening censorship that led to a free-for-all; the eighties were all about cheap: no stars, gore effects and creative kills being the entire raison dÃ ªtre for a horror films existence; the complacent, Wall Street frivolous 1990s were mostly in a horror lull, but ended with a bang of excellence with films like Stir of Echoes, The Sixth Sense and The Blair Witch Project. In the new millennium, a new generation of filmmakers is finding its voice, raised on ubiquitous film courses in high school and beyond, computers that provide in-home editing and sound mixing, mobile, high definition cameras that lead everyone to believe they can be the next John Carpenter. But it is ingenuity that best raises the profile among hordes of wannabes, as well as a point of view. The world, under the shroud of George W Bush, Tony Blair and their brethren, is dangerous, complicated and nervous. And the boom of horrific storytelling, even when controlled by the mass-media collective out to squeeze every last buck out of it, will reflect a world on edge in its unforgiving mirrorÃ¢â¬ ¦ at least until the next cycle. (Garris in Carolyn, 2008) In the first section, Configuring the Monster, I will explore the key themes of the genre; the main issues and the debates raised, and engage with approaches and theories that have been applied to horror texts. This theoretical background will be presented via the modernist context within which early horror texts evolved. This brief description of the generic development of the horror film will thus provide a review of its fundamental preoccupations, especially through a discussion of a variety of psychoanalytic and gendered readings. This first part also includes a case study that reviews indicative patterns of readings of horror texts across different age groups that are interesting in terms of the progression of spectator involvement with horror film. In the second section, Consensus and Constraint 1919-1960, and the final section, Chaos and Collapse 1960-2000, I will further address the chronological evolution of the horror film, looking upon particular historical periods. This analysis will consider the role of both traditional myth and gothic literature in early cinematic representations of horror. Post-war developments are then viewed in terms of the revisiting of these generic formulae. The more contemporary transgression of boundaries of permissible gore and pathological states are then considered through a discussion of the work of postmodern auteurs reworking the genres field of operation and its consistent cycling. Inevitably in a work of this length, many complex arguments will be rendered briefly and simplistically, and many important observations reduced to description and generalistion. This is not a disclaimer; rather it is an encouragement for other researchers to pursue further lines of enquiry and to address the genre anew from a personal, informed perspective. (Wells, 2000)
Saturday, January 18, 2020
1. AWIT is a form of Filipino poetry. Its literal translation into English is Ã¢â¬Å"song,Ã¢â¬ although in the context of poetry, it is closer to the narrative. Ang awit ay isang uri ng tulang pasalaysay na binubuo ng tig-aapat na taludtod ang bawat saknong, na ang bawat taludtod ay may lalabindalawahing pantig, at ang tradisyonal na dulong tugma ay isahan (aaaa, bbbb, cccc, at iba pa). Karaniwang paksa ng awit ang pakikipagsapalaran ng bayani, ngunit ang ibaÃ¢â¬â¢y tumatalakay din sa mga alamat at relihiyosong tula. Sa pag-aaral ng batikang mananaliksik Damiana L. Eugenio, ang Ã¢â¬Å"awitÃ¢â¬ ay walang ikinaiba sa Ã¢â¬Å"koridoÃ¢â¬ , maliban lamang sa bilang ng pantig sa bawat taludtod. Ang awit, gaya ng korido, ay nagtataglay ng tatlong elemento. Una, ang pag-iibigan. Ikalawa, ang relihiyoso at pangangaral. At ikatlo, ang kahima-himala at kagila-gilalas 2. PROPAGANDA is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position. Propaganda is information that is not impartial and used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or using loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. Propaganda can be used as a form of ideological or commercial warfare. 3. KKK Ã¢â¬â Katipunan SamahÃ ¡ng KataÃ ¡staasan, Kagalanggalang Katipunan ngÃÆ' mgÃÆ'Ã ¡ Anak ngÃÆ' Bayan Formation July 7, 1892 Extinction May 10, 1897 President Deodato Arellano (1892-1893) Roman Basa (1893-1895) AndrÃ ©s Bonifacio (1895-1897) Headquarters Tondo, Manila; Kawit, Cavite Newspaper Kalayaan *The Katipunan (abbreviated to KKK) was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots AndrÃ ©s Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7, when Filipino writer JosÃ © Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan. Initially, the Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. The Tagalog word Ã¢â¬Å"katipunan,Ã¢â¬ literally means Ã¢â¬Ëassociation,Ã¢â¬â¢ comes from the root word Ã¢â¬Å"tipon,Ã¢â¬ a Tagalog word meaning Ã¢â¬Å"gather togetherÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"society.Ã¢â¬  Its official revolutionary name was Samahang Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalang Katipunan ngÃÆ' mgÃÆ'a Anak ngÃÆ' Bayan (English: Supreme and Most Honorable Society of the Children of the Nation, Spanish: Suprema y Venerable AsociaciÃ ³n de los Hijos del Pueblo). The Katipunan is also known by its acronym, KKK. The organization has no affiliation with the racist group known as the Ku Klux Klan who are also associated with the acronym Ã¢â¬Å"KKKÃ¢â¬ . Being a secret organization, its members were subjected to the utmost secrecy and were expected to abide with the rules established by the society. Aspirant applicants were given standard initiation rites to become members of the society. At first, membership in the Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos; later, women were accepted in the society. The Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan (Liberty) that had its first and last print on March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and Philippine literature were expanded by some of its prominent members. In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for the Katipunan in exchange for a promise of rescuing Rizal from his detainment. On May 1896, a delegation was sent to the Emperor of Japan to solicit funds and military arms. The KatipunanÃ¢â¬â¢s existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro PatiÃ ±o confessed the KatipunanÃ¢â¬â¢s illegal activities to his sister, and finally to the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned of the existence of the secret society, on August 26, 1896, Bonifacio and his men tore their cÃ ©dulas during the infamous Cry of Pugadlawin that started the Philippine Revolution 4. KORIDO isang uri ng panitikang pilipino, isang uri ng tulang nakuha natin sa impluwensiya ng mga Espanyol. Ito ay may sukat na walong pantig bawat linya at may apat na linya sa isang saknong. Ang korido ay binibigkas sa pamamagitan ng pakantang pagpapahayag ng mga tula. 5. PLAY is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of scripted dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, as well a University or school productions. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference whether their plays were performed or read. The term Ã¢â¬Å"playÃ¢â¬ can refer to both the written works of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance. 6. SHORT STORY is a brief work of literature, usually written in narrative prose. Emerging from earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of named characters, and focuses on a self-contained incident with the intent of evoking a Ã¢â¬Å"single effectÃ¢â¬ or mood. In doing so, short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, yet to a far lesser degree than a novel. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques. 7. ESSAY is generally scholarly pieces of writing giving the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. 8. DECALOGUE ( EMILIO JACINTO ) Bonifacio realized that in order to strengthen the katipunan, theÃ members had to be disciplined and indoctrinated with the ideals of the revolutionary society. In his Ã¢â¬Å"Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll. B.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Duties of the Sons of the PeopleÃ¢â¬ ), Bonifacio listed down the rules of the Katipunan which constitute a decalogue: I. Love God with all your heart. II. Bear always in mind that the love of God is also the love of country, and thiis, too, is love of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s fellow-men. III. Engrave in your heart that the true measure of honor and happiness is to die for the freedom of your country. IV. All your good wishes will be crowned with success if you have serenity, constancy, reason, and faith in your acts and endeavor. V. Guard the mandates and aims of the K.K.K. as you guard your honor. VI. It is the duty of all to deliver, at the risk of their own lives and wealth, anyone who runs great risks in the performance of his duty. VII. Our responsibility to ourselves and the performance of our duties will be the example set for our fellow-men to follow. VIII. Insofar as it is within your power, share your means with the poor and the unfortunate. IX. Diligence in the work that gives sustenance to you is the true basis of love Ã¢â¬â love for your own self, for your wife and children, and for your brothers and countrymen. X. Punish any s coundrel and traitor and praise all good work. Believe, likewise, that the aims of the K.K.K. are God-given for the will of the people is also the will of God. 9. SEMI AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NOVEL An autobiographical novel is a form of novel using autofiction techniques, or the merging of autobiographical and fictive elements. The literary technique is distinguished from an autobiography or memoir by the stipulation of being fiction. Because an autobiographical novel is partially fiction, the author does not ask the reader to expect the text to fulfill the Ã¢â¬Å"autobiographical pactÃ¢â¬ . Names and locations are often changed and events are recreated to make them more dramatic but the story still bears a close resemblance to that of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life. While the events of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life are recounted, there is no pretense of exact truth. Events may be exaggerated or altered for artistic or thematic purposes. Novels that portray settings and/or situations with which the author is familiar are notÃ necessarily autobiographical. Neither are novels that include aspects drawn from the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life as minor plot details. To be considered an autobiographical novel by most standards, there must be a protagonist modeled after the author and a central plotline that mirrors events in his or her life. Novels that do not fully meet these requirements or are further distanced from true events are sometimes called semi-autobiographical novels. Many novels about intense, private experiences such as war, family conflict or sex, are written as autobiographical novels 10. DIMASALANG Jose Rizal used the penname Laong Laan in the 1890s when he wrote poems and articles for La Solidaridad, then the Propaganda MovementÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest voice. Literally translated it means Ã¢â¬Å"reserved for a long timeÃ¢â¬ and figuratively it means Ã¢â¬Å"laging handaÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"ever ready.Ã¢â¬ Dimasalang was the pseudonym of Jose Rizal that he adopted when he entered Freemasonry in 1883. He widely used this pseudonym in his articles in 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. Literally [ hin] di masalang means Ã¢â¬Å"untouchableÃ¢â¬ in Taal Tagalog.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Some people say television is the worst inventions of modern times. They make this assertion for some reasons. The following points are some of them. First, they think that televisions make people more passive than before. Second, they think televisions contribute to the fact that people are more distant to each other. To begin with, I must admit that the first point is reasonable. With a television all you need to doÃ¢â¬âand all you can do is to sit on a comfortable sofa and look at the screen. People are becoming more passive simply because there is no interaction and no efforts on them. Everything contains good side and bad side and television has no exception. Yeah, of course, it makes people lazier and passive. They just watch things on TV instead of doing by themselves. But apart from that, television is by all means a great invention. There is only a minority of people who can watch some events on the scene, like some live matches and competitions . So how can the rest of people participate in the events far from the place the events happen? Of course through television which all people are legal and free to enjoy can we do so. In addition, to people who want to travel but with no money, television is undoubtedly a great thing through which people can see the world only by sitting ideally at home. To the second point, I want to say that it is true. Televisions do make people less close to each other. Family get-togethers and conversations are disturbed by TVÃ¢â¬âwhen one member is watching TV, he would like others to keep quiet. But everyone have time when he or she is alone. Television alienates people not so much as it provides all kinds of relaxation and entertainment for people when they are alone. Although television addict some adolescents to situation comedies; although televisions put glasses on millions of students' noses; although television reduce communications between families and friends, the advantages of television are far more than the harm it does to us. To us individuals, when we finish a whole day's work and feel exhausted both physically and mentally, we may turn on televisions and have a good relaxation; when we want to get information on sports?entertainment or large events in the world, we turn on televisions and get it from all kinds of TV programs; even when we want to learn English?etiquette or custom of foreign countries, we can turn on the television and get what we need from them, always. In a word, I think television is a great invention which is of great significance to the evolution of human society. References: http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Television-Great-Invention/100718 http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/parents/television/good_things_tv.cfm http://articles.famouswhy.com/the_benefits_and_dangers_of_television/ http://wenda.tianya.cn/wenda/thread?tid=24535823bd68dd80 http://wenwen.soso.com/z/q138729005.htm
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Every group feels strong, once it has found a scapegoatÃ¢â¬ (Mignon McLaughlin, 1913). A scapegoat is someone who is blamed for all the faults and corruptions that others have committed. In history, there are lots of scapegoat examples, the most popular being; Jesus Christ and the Jews in the Second World War. In the short story Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , Shirley Jackson used persecution and tradition to demonstrate how scapegoating justified unfair killing. Both of these aspects relate to the World War that preceded only a couple years before the story was written. The persecution was blind and done once a year as a tradition that everyone expected to happen. Therefore, the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s main idea was to let the reader imagine what the real meaning of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Chips of wood, Mr. Summers had argued, had been all very well when the village was tiny, but now that the population was more than three hundred and likely to keep growingÃ¢â¬ (Jac kson, 2). The town never had an overpopulation issue, there was never a good enough reason to continue the lottery and even less start it for that matter. The social hierarchy of the town did not allow the people to have a voice and that made them feel intimidated. The people were almost programed and expected to accept and carry this unfair tradition; not because of the meaning of it but because they were scared to ask to let it go in results of things getting worse. Furthermore, the people in this story were attached to the tradition for the wrong reasons, aside from the fact that they did not know the reason it was put in place decades before, they were scared to change the norm of their town because they did not know anything different. No one in the town dared to question the tradition, except for the younger generation. Ã¢â¬Å"They do say,Ã¢â¬ Mr. Adams said to Old Man Warner, who stood next to him, Ã¢â¬Å"that over in the north village theyÃ¢â¬â¢re talking of giving up t he lotteryÃ¢â¬ (Jackson, 4). The social hierarchy that Jackson implicitly represented was also relatable to the one in the war. Mr. Summers was represented as the conductor of evil, the one who continued and forced the tradition on others because it did not affect himShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of Shirley Jacksons The Lottery490 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pages In Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ the theme of the story is dramatically illustrated by JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s unique tone. Once a year the villagers gather together in the central square for the lottery. The villagers await the arrival of Mr. Summers and the black box. Within the black box are folded slips of paper, one piece having a black dot on it. All the villagers then draw a piece of paper out of the box. Whoever gets the paper with the black dot wins. Tessie Hutchinson wins the lottery! Everyone thenRead MoreAnalysis Of Shirley Jacksons The Lottery1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespowerful force (qtd. in AZQuotes). In S hirley Jacksons chilling story The Lottery, a town celebrates a special custom of stoning people to death every year. Jackson perfectly depicts a possible event that may occur from blindly following tradition without evaluating the purpose or usefulness of it in the first place. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s use of plot, theme, and symbolism reveal the evil reality of blind faith, tradition, and their consequences. Initially, JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s twisted plot reveals the infinite, viciousRead MoreAnalysis Of Shirley Jacksons The Lottery954 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe authors message. Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ displays a masterful usage of literary elements to better convey JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s general purpose, such as through the deep symbolism and underlying theme; however, JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s true provocation of emotion is accomplished through her quintessential use of point of view. The objective point of view is indispensable within Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ because of the creation of suspense, drama, and irony. To begin with, the first reason why JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s objective point of viewRead MoreAnalysis of Shirley Jacksons The Lottery Essay776 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ is a short story by Shirley Jackson, first published on June 26, 1948. The story was initially met with negative critical reception due to its violent nature and portrayal of the potentially dangerous nature of human society. It was even banned in some countries. However, Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ is now widely accepted as a classic American short story and is used in classrooms throughout the country. JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s story takes a critical look at what can result when the customs and laws that governRead MoreAnalysis of Shirley Jacksons The Lottery Essays4601 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pages Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s famous short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ was published in 1948 and remains to this day one of the most enduring and affecting American works in the literary canon. Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ tells the story of a farming community that holds a ritualistic lottery among its citizens each year. Although the text initially presents audiences with a close-knit community participating in a social event together on a special day, the shocking twist at the workÃ¢â¬â¢s endÃ¢â¬âwith the death of the lotteryÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"winnerÃ¢â¬ Read MoreAnalysis of John Steinbecks Chrysanthemums and Shirley Jacksons The Lottery1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesExamining The ChrysanthemumS The Lottery Examining The Chrysanthemums The Lottery In the WWII period, women entered the workforce is massive numbers a statistical anomaly that had never existed in American society or hardly any other modern society, ever. They became empowered and more women realized a wider range of their capabilities. A few decades after WWII, the feminist movement would rise to change the course of womens history again. The success and fervor of the feminist movementRead MoreAn Analysis of Shirley Jacksons The Lottery and Flannery OConnors A Good Man Is Hard to Find1360 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesShirley Jackson The Lottery Shirley Jacksons short story The Lottery depicts life in a provincial American town with rigid social norms. Mr. Summers symbolizes everything that is wrong with the town; he represents blind adherence to ritual, social rigidity, and resistance to change. His name corresponds with the seasonal setting of The Lottery, too, drawing attention to the importance of his character in shaping the theme of the story. Summers is in charge of the central motif of the storyRead More Shirley Jacksons The Lottery 946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShirley Jackson is said to be one of the most Ã¢â¬Å"brilliant and influential authors of the twentieth century.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Her fiction writing is some of the most important to come out of the American literary canon.Ã¢â¬ (http://shirleyjackson.org/Reviews.html) Jackson wrote many short stories and even some books. They are more on the dark, witchlike side, however. Kelleher explains that Jackson stated in some interviews that she practiced magic. No one re ally knows if she was serious while practicing witchcraftRead MoreUse of Symbolism in The Lottery by Shirley Jackson1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbulb represents ideas that just sparked into a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s head. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ by Shirley Jackson, a village has just entered the month of June, meaning that the lottery is to begin. When everyone was present, the heads of the householdsÃ¢â¬â¢ names were called one by one to pick up a slip of paper. It was then discovered that the Hutchinson family was the chosen family to participate in the lottery again. When Mr. Hutchinson, Mrs. Hutchinson, Bill Jr., Nancy, and Little Dave each gotRead MoreSymbolism in The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay example1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen most people play the lottery today, they think about having wealth. Generally, people who win are happy about it whether they win one dollar or a million. The lottery in our society has grown to support education and it is often worth several million dollars. Usually, the winner of the lottery gains a lot of recognition for the money they win. But what would happen if there was a small town where people held a yearly lottery in which the Ã¢â¬Å"winnerÃ¢â¬ was the member of the town who was not sacrificed
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s view of division of labour is divided into three types of peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ task in life which are workers as farmers, military type and guardians. Actually, the ruling task of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic is the guardianÃ¢â¬â¢s responsible who had achieved the greatest wisdom or knowledge of good. Due to that, Plato claims that Ã¢â¬Å"philosopher must become kings or those now who called kings must genuinely and adequately philosophiseÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ (Nussbaum1998, p.18). However, people argue about the reasons that the philosopher should rule the city, while the philosophers prefer to gain knowledge instead of power, thus they donÃ¢â¬â¢t seek this authority. Therefore, the argument should alter to why the philosophers are the best ruler to govern people. Indeed, Plato statesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦So PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s idea portrays that we somehow have an idea of the basic form of the Blueness as it applies to us. Plato introduced a ship of state which describes t he philosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s king position (Thomas Smith, 2009). This concept shows that there are masses who are busy fighting over what is the right way to govern the ship which is basic on listening to the true navigator who is representing the true philosopher. As long as, the purity of thought is leading society to the true philosophers those philosophers will have a variety of qualities to uniting people such as quick learning and justice. According to Plato, the characteristics of a true philosopher have to be ascertained. The characteristics are a good memory, graciousness, justice, courage and temperance. Moreover, philosophers have to love the truth, so they never reach into their minds a falsehood. Plato states that the gods of jealousy himself is drawn towards knowledge and expatriate all the pleasure of the soul. By these qualities, philosophers can have magnificence of mind and wisdom which helps them to rule the city state (Nussbaum, 1998). At the end, Plato draws the philosopher king education system with five stages of study to earn the skills and characteristic. A primary stage is during age 18 with two years physical training. The second stage is ten years of mathematics studying, because Plato believes the Form cannot be fully understood unless they are tied with scores of theShow MoreRelatedThe Impossible Quest For The Ideal Society1645 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdebated for centuries. Many theories have been conjured up by intellectuals, all with differing divisions of power, wealth, and labor. Two of these competing theories are those presented in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic and AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Politics. While they both present a wide range of views on many issues, this paper will only focus on two issues that go hand-in-hand: slaveryÃ¢â¬â¢s role in society, and the divisions of property and power amongst the classes. Aristotle makes a better case for the selection of slavesRead MorePlato s Views On Democracy845 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn The Republic of Plato, Plato, in addition to sharing his views on justice, shares his views on democracy using a fictionalized Socrates to outline the most pressing issues. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s views on democracy are negative; he believes democracy to be bred from a response to inequality of wealth and to heighten all of humanities worst traits. Plato believes democracy leads to unequipped leaders who hold offices and power without the necessary traits and preparation. The main issue Plato has with democracyRead MoreUtopia Vs Dystopia797 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe topic of utopias have always been an interesting topic for philosophers throughout time. Many ideas and perfect laws have been discussed, however every manÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue, is anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s vice and there are disagreements. Both PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic and MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Utopia heavily discuss their ideas of a perfect society. Their thoughts on a utopia have plenty similarities, more specifically in gender relations. They believe that for a society to truly be equal women must work as much as men and that both menRead MoreComparing Machiavelli And Plato s The Republic 1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiffering views on the role of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on its people. Machiavelli expresses his idea of the correct form of government in both Ã¢â¬Å"The PrinceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The DiscoursesÃ¢â¬ in which he preaches that a government must stand strong in order for the people b elow it to flourish. Meanwhile PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s notorious Ã¢â¬Å"The RepublicÃ¢â¬ takes a different stance and pushes the idea that the government can give an illusion of freedom by maintaining a specific structure. Obviously one cannot manage a republic withoutRead MoreEssay on Can We Live in a Just World?1787 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages In The Republic, Plato, the greatest political philosopher explores the meaning of justice through many characters and dialogues of OKeefe 2 Socrates. His technique was to dissect the meaning of justice through the asking and answering of questions. Throughout The Republic, there are many different views given from the greatest philosophers of all time Plato, Aristotle, Cicero Aquinas expressing what they believe the true meaning of justice is. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s versionRead MorePlato s The Republic Presents Meaningful Insight Into The Concepts Of Education And Knowledge3265 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesPlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Republic presents meaningful insight into the concepts of education and knowledge. As with most scholars in the Greek society, the discussions held by the philosopher center on leadership and common concepts like justice. However, PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s discourse from SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ teachings delves deeper to create an understanding of cognition and create a clear relationship between it and education. Quite often, PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic seeks to create the distinction between the elite and those that still sufferRead MoreSocrates Ideal Society Essay1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic Book 2 and 3, Socrates gives two arguments and proposals about making a just city. Socrates proposes and later argues, the ideal society being a society in which there is supervision over the storytellers. He believes this is necessity to make sure the youth of the society grow up to be just characters. SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ second proposal that an ideal society would have the Ã¢â¬Å"myth of the metalsÃ¢â¬ as a Ã¢â¬Å"noble lieÃ¢â¬ implemented into their society. This ideal society therefore following theRead More Foundations of Political Thought Essays1664 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAristotle and Socrates and PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs have similarities mainly evident in their denouncement of democracy for the state. The views of Socrates expressed and written by his pupil Plato are vastly philosophical in nature and he promotes the idea of questioning life to achieve insight. The philosophers who possess the absolute truth are the best equipped to rule society according to Plato and his Allegory of the Cave. Conversely, Aristotle takes a more political science approach of discussingRead MoreSocrates Plausible Case for Justice862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages This paper argues that Socrates makes a plausib le case for justice. Socrates raised two main questions in the first two books of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic, what is justice? And why should we act justly? Thrasymachus and Glaucon both have different and more negative views of justice than Socrates. Throughout books one and two, Socrates, Glaucon and Thrasymachus go back and forth discussing the definition and application of justice in society. He starts his discussions with Glaucon and Thrasymachus by statingRead MorePlato and AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Forms of Government2292 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Plato, a well- known philosopher is known for his book The Republic in which he discusses politics and the way society should run in order to achieve a just society. Plato was born into a aristocratic and dominant family. He lived from 428 B.C to 48 B.C. (Dale 22). Throughout his life, Plato never ceased to expand his knowledge which lead him to create a school of his own; PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Academy. One of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s students, who attended Pla toÃ¢â¬â¢s academy, was another well-known philosopher named Aristotle.
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
The importance of ethics in business has become a bigger focus both nationally and globally. Due to high profile cases of unethical behavior in the housing and securities sector, we have seen a complete institutionalization of business ethics in the workplace. At minimum, this includes mandatory requirements, core practices, and strict punishments for violators. Within this idea and practice of Business Ethics, is the ethical framework of Corporate Social Responsibility. This idea suggests that companies have an obligation to act in such a way that it benefits society at large. This idea works best when a company takes a positive and voluntary approach. In many cases, we see companies struggle with having a positive impact on society, while also growing profits. This is truer for smaller businesses, who may have limited resources and maximum profitability is needed to stay afloat. We are going to explore a similar dilemma that Company Q is facing. Company Q is a small grocery chain that has recently experienced a significant downsizing. They were approached by a local food bank requesting donations of day-old products. Management has chosen to decline due to concerns of possible loss of revenue. They felt this would lead to employee theft or misconduct; employees taking the food home in the guise of donating. There are those who feel that their decision is reasonable and that social responsibility is in direct conflict of a successful business model for a small company.Show MoreRelatedWhat Is Business Ethics? The Public Interest1047 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility Executive Summary Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has gain a considerable amount of attention in recent years. Much of this has been driven by the publics expectations of their products to be produced under ethical business models. With the aid of technology consumers are becoming more aware of the operations that are responsible for the products they buy. Therefore the pressure for maintaining a CSR program has come from multiple sources. This paperRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility On A Social Level1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis to understand how a large progressive company operates in the corporate world as well as fulfills their corporate responsibility on a social level. While corporate responsibility is important, it is always viewed through the fiscal viability dimension of the maelstrom. The business case dominates the representation and operationalization of corporate responsibility. Due to the increased public sensitivity to corporate responsibility, the attitude has evolved from the unnecessary intrusion, throughRead MoreMilton Friedman s Philosophy Of Corporate Responsibility1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of corporate responsibility is that Ã¢â¬Å"social matters are not the concern of business people and that these problems should be resolved by the unfettered workings of the free market systemÃ¢â¬ . As harsh as it may sound, what he mean course to say was that a business has Ã¢â¬Å"to make as much money as possible while conforming to basic rules of societyÃ¢â¬ . Meanwhile, Archie CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy states that a business has Ã¢â¬Å"four kinds of social responsibilitiesÃ¢â¬ that a firm must addressRead MoreMaking A Business Decision For Any Ceo Essay1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThus, the need for ethical decision making. Ethics is described as a normative, because is rely on our reasoning of how we should act. How we think we should act is heavily influenced by our morals and personal integrity. Norms are normal behaviors but what may be normal or what my values are may be different from yours. Therefore, in business, it is important to create good ethical values as set standards. Not only does this create personal responsibly but also aware of social responsibly. ThisRead MoreMoral Responsibility797 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages(A) of the core moral responsibility This is done by P. Pula Li (Peter Pratley)proposed. Pula Li believes that the same as the implementation of quality management, companies also accept the moral responsibility of the concrete. at the lowest level, the enterprise must take three responsibilities: (1) concern for consumers, such as the ability to meet the ease of use, product safety And other requirements; (2)concern for the environment; (3) interest on the minimum working conditions. Platts theseRead MoreInternational Business Ethics And Ethical Issues Within International Organizations1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinternational business encourage firms and organisations to become socially responsible and ethical global citizens? What I am here to tell you today is that with the correct organisational procedures, internationally renowned businesses are able to become socially responsible and ethically recognised. However when international organisations have unseemly and immoral behavioural standards, generating ethical g lobal citizens is out of the question. Today international business ethics have a numberRead MoreEthical Discernment: The Adelphia Scandal1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthical discernment Adelphia scandal Statistical analysis This paper relies on secondary data on a past phenomenon. It combines data from journal and other internet sources to bring out aspects of unethical behavior by Adelphias top executive. The analysis of data takes two ethical frameworks. Ethics involve an individuals moral judgments concerning what is right and/or wrong. Individuals or groups of people are responsible for making decisions in an organization (shaw, 2008). Decisions withinRead MoreImpact Of Csr On Organizational Trust And Brand Authenticity1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesImpact of CSR on Organizational Trust and Brand Authenticity and their behavioral outcomes on Firms Abstract: The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility in sustainable business is inevitable throughout the world. This study aims to investigate long-term relationships between stakeholders and socially responsible companies, reasoning the effect of organizational Trust and Brand Authenticity on such relationships. Trust is a fundamental asset in every business and non-business relationshipRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility ( Csr )1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmore attention on the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The core issue is the appropriate responsibility of business. In as much as firms ought to obey the law, but beyond complete compliance with environmental laws, the question is whether firms have extra social responsibilities to commit part of their resources to environmental preservation voluntarily. This memo provides an exploratory investigation of the link between corporate social responsibility and the benefits accruing to aRead MoreEthical Implications Of Ethical Leadership830 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Ethical Leadership is defined as the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-makingÃ¢â¬ ¦ [and] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behaviour can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectivenessÃ¢â¬ (Rubin et al 2010: 216-17). Business ethics are moral principles that guide the way a business
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Master of Arts in Nursing Essay There is a knowledge base, authority over education, altruistic service, a code Of ethics and registration requirements for practice ( Mac Owen, 2007 ) A discipline is a unique perspective, a distinct way of viewing all phenomenon Which defines the limits and nature Of its inquiry. It is a branch Of knowledge ordered through the theories and methods evolving from more than one worldview of the phenomenon of concern. According to Mac Owen (2007) nursing knowledge base draws from many disciplines. In the past it has depended heavily on physiology, sociology, psychology and medicine to provide academic standing and to improve practice. However, recently nursing has been seeking hat is unique to nursing and developing those aspects into an academic discipline, What are the cornerstones of a discipline? L. Research- this is a systematic method of inquiry to discover an/or validate knowledge thus establishing a knowledge base to be used in practice. It contributes to the development of theory for practice, 2. Theory- is an intellectual invention which groups knowledge, ideas and experience seeking to illumine a given phenomena. It involves intellectual operations and is comprised of facts, principles, and concepts that are arranged to claim their interrelatedness. It describes something, a happening, a honeymoon, or explains phenomena and organize ideas and knowledge. Theory development is essential to nursing practice in that it describes, predicts, controls and explains phenomenon of interest to nurses. It validates, enhances and improves nursing practice promoting understanding and explanation of the phenomena and gives rise to the body of knowledge. 3. Practice It is the application of the discipline with a knowledge base a vehicle for implementation of theory as well as validation and impetus for research. According to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (2007) there are 4 important defining characteristics that determine nursing perspective: 1. Nature of nursing as human science 2. Nursing as a practice- oriented discipline 3. Nursing as a caring discipline the caring relationships that nurses and patients develop 4 Nursing as a health oriented discipline. It is an art where nurses grasp the meaning that is inherent in their encounter with patients, establish connections With clients skillfully perform nursing activities, choose between alternatives and to morally conduct nursing practice. The Stages in the Development of the Nursing Discipline 1. Stage of Practice, Apprenticeship and service- In this stage the mission of urging is to provide care and comfort to enhance healing and sense of well- being and to create a healthy environment that helps decrease suffering and deterioration. 2. Stage of Education and Administration- In this stage the focus of nursing is on what curriculum to develop and what training programs to offer to teach nursing practice also, vatu educational programs are best for prospective nurses, and what is the best venue for the education of nurses; is it the university or in the hospital 3. Stage of Research- In this stage nurses begin to look for means to improve the practice Of nursing. Nurses begin to engage in nursing inquiries and scientific endeavors. Thus, theory development improve because of research. 4. Stage of Theory This stage focuses on the fundamental questions about the essence of nursing, its mission, and its goals. Theory development at this time is influenced by many factors: paradigm of related disciplines, by the educational background which stems from existentialism, pragmatism, psychoanalysis, as well as trot humanism. According to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (2007) three themes in nursing evolved during this stage, These are: acceptance of the complexity Of nursing ND the inevitability tot multiple theories; acceptance of the need to test and corroborate major propositions of differing theories before dismissing any of them; and the idea that concepts or theories remaining in the field, through cumulative effect become the bases for the development of a scientific perspective. 5. Stage of Philosophy This stage focus on the raising and answering of questions about the nature of nursing knowledge. It is during this stage that nurses ask questions related to values, meanings and realities. 6. Stage of Integration- This stage is characterized by dialogues and discussions elated to Structures such as nursing, science, theories. Philosophy, clinical knowledge and nursing specialties. This stage marks the development of educational programs that are organized around the integration Of theory, research and practice. It is during this stage that members of specialty areas develop theories related to their fields. A final characteristic of this stage, according to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (1997) , is the systematic reappraisal of philosophical and theoretical underpinning that have guided the definitions and the conceptualization of the central concepts of the domain of nursing. 7. Stage tot Interdisciplinary In the beginning of the 21st century there was integration that challenged members of different disciplines to build programs of research that incorporate theories and evidences from different disciplines. Relationships are forged between research and clinicians who are members of different disciplines to develop joint institutes to advance research programs or to provide more comprehensive education. LESSON 2 NURSINGS INTERMARRIAGE A intermarriage is the global perspective of a discipline that identifies the primary phenomena that re Of interest to that discipline and explain how the spelling deals with those phenomena in a unique manner (Faucet 2000) as cited by Mac Owen (2007). The intermarriage includes major philosophical orientations or worldviews of a discipline, the conceptual models and theories that guide research and other scholarly activities. Person or nursing client- The recipient of care including its physical, intellectual, spiritual, psychological, and sculptural components (Catalane 1990). He is a human energy field, a holistic being in the world, an open system, an integrated whole, an adaptive system, and a being who is greater than the um of his parts ( Wagner 1986) The client may be an individual, family, or community. Health refers to the degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person. It is the ability to function independently, successful adaptation to life stresses, achievement of ones full life potential, and unity of mind, body, and soul. (Wagner 1 981) It is a continuum raging from a completely healthy state where there is no disease in to a completely unhealthy stage which ends in death At any given time in ones life , everyone is located somewhere along the health continuum and may move closer to one side or the other depending on his life tuition. The concept of health will vary from person to person and culture to culture ( Throne at AY 1998 ) Environment refers to all external and internal conditions, circumstances and influence affecting the person, significant others with whom the person interacts, and an open system With boundaries that permit the exchange Of the matter, energy and information with human beings (Wagner 1986) In nursing, the concept Of environment includes not only the simple surroundings but also to indicate elements such as living conditions, public sanitation, air and water, quality, interpersonal relationships and social interactions. The mount etna EssayActivity-exercise pattern 5. Cognitive-perceptual pattern 6. Sleep-rest pattern 7. Self-perception-self-concept pattern 8. Role-relationship pattern 9. Coping-stress-tolerance pattern 10. Value-belief pattern Some Other typologies Of nursing problems have been developed by Other nursing theorists, thus, emphasis on when to assess is very much influenced by the theoretical framework that is being subscribed to by the nurse. Nursing Diagnosis. The second component of the nursing process is the Nursing Diagnosis. Nursing diagnoses are defined as labels given to problems that fall within the domain of nursing. According to MÃ ªlÃ ©es (1997), TTT is a concise summary, a conceptual statement of the clients health status. The nursing literature contains many definitions tort nursing diagnosis. All tot these definitions add to better understanding of what the concept means, Some of these definitions are: 1. Nursing diagnosis is a concise phrase or term summarizing a cluster of empirical indicators representing patterns of unitary man (Roy, 1982) 2, A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about an individual, family or community Vichy is derived through a deliberate, systematic process of data collection analysis. It provides the basis for prescriptions for definitive therapy for Which the nurse is accountable. (Shoemaker, 1989) 3. A nursing diagnosis is a statement that describes the human response of an individual or group Which the nurse can legally identify and for Which the nurse can order the definitive interventions to maintain the health state or to reduce, eliminate or prevent alternation. 4. A nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about individual. Family, community responses to actual or potential health problems and live processes. Nursing diagnosis provides the bases for selecting nursing interventions to which the nurse is accountable (AND 1 990) These are just a few of the definitions and they can be summarized as being a statement that describes a clients actual or potential response to a health problem to which the nurse is capable of and is called upon to provide competent interventions. The evolution of the term nursing was fraught with controversy. Nurses at first were hesitant to use the term nursing diagnosis mostly because they lived that the term belonged to the realm of medicine. In fact, the pros and cons of the use of the term was debated by other health professionals including those in the medical professions. Originally, nursing curriculum was organized around diseases and medical conditions. However, starting mid-xis on to early ass nursing leaders and educators started to revise the curriculum around client-centered problems (Carpenter, 1989). It was in the early gs when the term nursing diagnosis came into being. Creative nursing leaders and educators formulated nursing diagnosis and wrote individualized nursing care plan. However, professional nursing, notably the American Nurses Association, was at first not supportive Of the use Of the diagnosis label for the reason mentioned earlier. The works of Henderson, Abdullah and other theorists, encouraged nursing in terms of patient problems and the subsequent use of the term nursing diagnosis. By the ass and xis, activities concerning nursing diagnosis increased. There was an increase in the number of articles in nursing literature which supported the use of nursing diagnosis. In 1973, the first conference of Nursing Diagnosis was held to establish a classification system. In 1982, the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (AND), was established. The purpose of AND was to develop, refine and promote a taxonomy of nursing diagnostic terminology of general use tort professional nursing (Kim, 1984). The American Nurses Association (ANA), has officially sanctioned AND as the organization to govern the development of classification system of nursing diagnosis (Carpenter, 1989), Presently, practicing nurses and educators use AND nursing diagnosis taxonomy as guidelines in developing individualized nursing care plans for their patients. (see Appendix for Namedropping diagnosis as of 1 992) The process involved in formulating nursing diagnosis includes analysis and interpretation Of data gathered during the assessment phase, identification of clients need and problems, and finally, formulating the nursing diagnosis. In the assessment phase, data were collected from a variety Of sources, validated and sorted out into clusters. From the clustered data, the nurse guided by her own knowledge and experienced, interprets. She recognizes patterns and trends, and draws conclusions from patients response. When a relationship among patterns is identified, a list of client. Centered problem or needs begins to merge. Thus, one can see that the formulation of nursing diagnosis makes use of diagnostic process. Aside from improving communication among nurses, nursing diagnosis also improves communication between nurses and clients. Nursing diagnoses facilitate communication in several ways: the list of nursing diagnoses is used as reference to understand clients health care needs; Nursing diagnoses provide consistency in communicating about clients level of wellness and discharge planning: nursing diagnoses encourage nurses to prioritize and therefore, help them to develop their organizational skill. Planning, Planning is a category of nursing behavior in which client-centered goals are established and strategies are designed to achieve the goal ( Potter and Perry, I gal The primary purpose of the planning step of the nursing process is to design a plan of care for the client data, once implemented, results in the prevention or resolution Of clients health problems ( Taylor, 1996) The three basic types of planning critical to comprehensive nursing care are: Initial, ongoing problem oriented and discharge. The initial plan is developed by the nurse who performs the admission nursing history and the physical assessment. This plan addresses each problem in the prioritize nursing diagnosis and identifies priorities, Standardized plans can be used as bases for planning, but the plan itself should be individualized. Ongoing problem oriented planning is carried out why any nurse who interacts with the client. Its chief purpose is to keep the plan up to date. At this stage of planning, nursing diagnoses are stated more clearly and new diagnoses and new goals are added when needed. Discharge planning is best carried out by the nurse who has worked more closely with the client and family and in conjunction tit other members of the health team.