Saturday, August 31, 2019
You are the news director of a local television station. The city council has Just voted to close city parks 3 days a week to save money. Meanwhile, a major celebrity has died. The park story has greater effect on your viewers, but the celebrity death will get bigger ratings? Which do you make your lead story and why? As a viewer I would normally say put the park story first 100 percent. This is local broadcast I want to hear about information that affects me directly.This is not the ease, though. As a news director I would put the story of the celebrity death in the lead position for the higher ratings. This may not seem like the best choice, but it is a numbers game. The good thing that may come out of leading with the passing of the celebrity is that more viewers will learn about the closures at the city parks, since they will be tuning in anyway. It is this channels responsibility to get the news out to the public, but it is the director's choice of what order that news will be s een.It is also likely that the national stations, internet, and radio will be reporting the story as well. This can mean some viewers may already be aware of celebrity death, but ultimately the city park story can run behind it. It is Just not as attention getting as the other story. This may not have been the case fifty or seventy-five years ago. Since the news traveled much slower then, the local happenings would be much more in the forefront, with national headlines taking longer to reach faraway places.This Just shows how media has changed over the last century. It will disappoint various viewers who may be tired of hearing about the death who then turn on the local station and see it again, but that is both the advantage and disadvantage of how the media is delivered in this day and age. We can learn about news almost instantly (advantage), but with every type of media outlet reporting on the most recent buzz, it can also become redundant very quickly as well (disadvantage).It is not an easy call to choose what the lead story will be because there will always be someone who has n opinion about what should have run first or could have been better, and there always will people to criticize the actions of others. Explain the effect of relationships among television, movies, and electronic games with culture. Television, movies, and electronic video games, and culture are all related and they all influence each other. Like the saying life does imitate art and are does imitate life.There are numerous television shows that relate to everyday life from the past to the present and most like will continue into the future Ã¢â¬â Just a few examples are: Friends, Sniffed, and Modern Family. The same goes for movies. The classic culture related film is: boy meets girl, boy falls in love with girl, boy loses girl, and boy gets girl back in the end. Who has not had at least one relationship like this in the past? They also relate to each other. A television show hasn 't really become an icon until it is made into a movie these days, for example Sex in the City has had not one, but two movies spawned from the show.Electronic games are included as well. There are quite a few movies that have been created from video games, like Laura Croft: Tomb Raider for example; and there have been movies that seem almost specifically made to become electronic games like Torn. Whether a person watches a movie or television show because he or she can relate to it or if it is purely entertainment, it does affect culture because it becomes a part of each person. People quote funny lines from a movie or show, why, because it they connect with what they watched and share it with others.It can then catch on and become should slang Ã¢â¬â who can forget Ã¢â¬Å"don't have a cow manÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"you got it dudeÃ¢â¬ ? Some movies, television shows, and electronic games do depict violence and demeaning social situations. They often get blamed when people in real li fe commit violent crimes. This is a topic people feel strongly about on both sides, and is not easy to defend or condemn. The most important thing to do is to talk open with our children, teach them clearly what is right and what is wrong, and give them self-confidence and self-worth, so in a controversial situation they are able to make the right decision.
Friday, August 30, 2019
As i was riding a jeepney from an appointment towards home I was surprised when three street children went inside the jeepney and announced Ã¢â¬Å"Ayaw mo og kahadlok mga ate og kuya, dili mi mangawat ani-a kami para mangantaÃ¢â¬ ¦one two three go maestroÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ and as they performed a series of rap songs many passengers were in awe and were happy that they gave alms to the three street children. And as the jeepney reached to Guadalupe they left the jeepney with full of smiles saying thanks to the people. Yes, it was really fun to hear their giggles. It also made me think that indeed those childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s way of gaining money is better than stealing money or things. However, how long will those children do the same routine? How many more street children will be doing the same trend? Before 2012 gave her crown to 2013, she has made another record in History, and this is the implementation of Ã¢â¬Å"Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10354)Ã¢â¬ informally known as Reproductive Health Law. This law not only gives voice and empowerment to women but also gives responsibilities to men and the rights of the children to be happy (granting them future). The R.H. law gives emphasis to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health through the use of family planning through the use of either the Ã¢â¬Å"Calendar methodÃ¢â¬ or through the use of pills and condoms (the artificial method). It is a great help for couples in forming their family and their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s future. It gives the couples some Ã¢â¬Å"adjustment-timeÃ¢â¬ to how many kids they would like to have and how many kids they can support. It also teaches both the kids and the men on how to be responsible citizens. Such help would be possible through the integration of the subject to the different fields of studies in the school and orienting them to learn Sex Education itself and Proper Parenting. RH Law strictly discourages the act of abortion, but if one has committed the act already, the government will help that woman if there are complications making them realize their wrong decisions. Poor families will also be given help upon their delivery by the government. All in all for me RH law entails general welfare for the people. It does not stop or disobey any of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s commandments regarding Creation. It only lets the other people realize how Ã¢â¬Å"love-makingÃ¢â¬ and having a baby is sacred.Ã¢â¬ Through delaying its process it gives the the children the future that they both want and need and not the life like those street kids are experiencingÃ or worseÃ¢â¬ ¦ Indeed we have given by God a new and the best gift we can hope forÃ¢â¬ ¦
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s character from The Crucible, Abigail Williams, was a beautiful girl who had a hold on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. She lied to protect herself and caused chaos for everyone in the town of Salem because all of the right people believed her. History repeats itself, and what Abigail has caused and done has been done many times. During our existence, Adolf Hitler and Joseph McCarthy repeated the same sort of chaos as Abigail Williams had done. Adolf Hitler was a German dictator who spread a rumor that Jews were the cause of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems, had the power to have them killed, and had six million Jews killed. Hitler could have anything done because he sympathized with the people and had the people and the Nazi army on his side. Just like Abigail did when she spread the rumors of witches and had others back her accusations up; Ã¢â¬Å"MARY WARREN: She sees nothinÃ¢â¬â¢! ABIGAIL: She sees nothinÃ¢â¬â¢! MARY WARREN: Abby, you mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t! ABIGAIL AND ALL THE GIRLS: Abby, you mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t!Ã¢â¬ (1209). Abigail also sympathized with the Church, for the Church was aware of witches and if there was an accusation towards a person most of those people who were accused would die. Saying the names of different people who were supposedly witches would cause their death. Joseph McCarthy was a senator who between 1940 & 1950 made a public accusation that, more than two hundred Ã¢â¬Å"card-carryingÃ¢â¬ communists had infiltrated the United States government, including the author, Arthur Miller. This caused a heightening of paranoia and a hunt for these people. The hunt was notoriously difficult on writers and entertainers who were called communist sympathizers. The writers and entertainers would get their passports taken away, or jailed, but most importantly the well publicized trials of these artists could destroy their careers when tried as a communist sympathizer. Both of these men had influence on people that caused great chaos in others life similar to what Abigail did in her time. Joseph McCarthy made an accusation that started paranoia and accused many people of being a communist sympathizer, like Abigail did when she said the names of Ã¢â¬Å"Sarah GoodÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Goody OsburnÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Bridget BishopÃ¢â¬ (1156), and others who were supposedly witches and who she supposedly saw with the devil and got them killed. Adolf Hitler had about six million Jews killed because he thought it would solve GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s problems and bring peace. Abigail had the people in town killed because it would be the solution to get out of Salem unharmed. In all three situations they had people agree with what they said and made it a much more believable to more and more people than what a specific person believed. Adolf Hitler, Joseph McCarthy, and Abigail Williams all had something in common; they had the ability to have many people believe things that were not true and have action to execute that individuals plan. Whether it was to have someone executed, put on trial, or have people believe the malarkey that they were speaking, they all had a chaos that started with Abigail and repeated itself in a different way but same concept.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Sociology of Education - Essay Example The new approach to education supports the idea that these are the families and private persons, who must be responsible for education, leaving minimum space for old objects of regulation. The incidence of state decreased, whereas the society is treated in terms of market and economy. The society is under reconstruction. But due to the fact that many state responsibilities inherent to old model of society are about to disappear, the rights of citizens are suppressed by the consumer rights. So some elements of solving the problems in the sphere of education were passed to the private sector. Present financial crisis and economic decline that still goes on both in the UK and the USA make evident that educational system is revised and reassessed. There are some points that are common for the both countries and these points are most demonstrative factors to show that revision is necessary, as it is dictated by the conditions of reality. These factors are as follows: it is a tendency to blame teachers for level of education doesn't meet the requirements of the society, as well as reducing the funds that are meant for educational needs and putting higher standards with the help of market management. This resulted in a flood of laws and recommendations given to the representatives of educational system. However, a significant part of these recommendations appeared to be a factor disturbing, rather than supporting the teachers in the process of changes made. The attempts of changing existing conditions have some differences in the USA and the UK and can be better seen in comparison. The essence of the educational reform in the USA lies in restructuring, in other words, providing for definite changes in structure, environment, organizations and curriculum of educational system. Changes include giving parents more opportunities of participating in school life and learning, or creating councils, or establishing school management and common problem-solving. Hallinger & Hausman (1993) described a plan that includes major points that should be taken into consideration while working upon the plans of reconstruction: "the decentralization of authority through school-based management; shared decision-making at each school site; a system of controlled parental choice concerning pupil attendance; and curricula organized around distinctive themes reflecting different educational philosophies ... The primary motivation was the district's commitment to the development of a viable and effective way to attain ethnic balance in its elementary schools." (Hallinger, P. & Hausman, C. 1993) The frames and schemes of restructuring differ in various states, cities and schools, but there is one general idea of reformation which is implemented in all these plans of restructuring. Some schools regard changes in structure as obligatory, the others find them optional. However, one of the most meaningful issues that refer to the essence of reformation is its effect on the nature, purpose and content of the teacher's functions. Usually restructuring presupposes a change from stressed administrative role to a flexible leadership, while in the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Human Nature and Psychology - Essay Example Naturally, human beings are ever considered as the source of norm of conduct or the creatures that define their ways of life and resenting constrains and obstacles of leading or living a virtuous life. Human nature has been evolving since time in memorial. Each historic era is usually defined by distinct characteristic of human nature as well as the psychological concepts. However, since the human generation moves from one era to another, they tend to shade off some defining human characteristic of a given era while moving to other era. Nonetheless, some of the characteristics are carried into the new era. Therefore, the nineteenth century and twentieth century are defined by some similarity and differences in the conceptions of human nature and psychology. Similarities and Differences The end of the nineteenth century was marked with numerous developments that led to rejection of Victorian principles. The Victorian age was marked by shift an agricultural society to an industrial soc iety. The period was as well defined by the decline in traditional religious beliefs and adoption of moral aesthetic. However, they retained the literature values maintaining that the literature would enable them understand and perfectly adapt to the newly founded society (Jeeves, 2006). It means both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries had same literature but remarkable, different economic activities and religious beliefs (Gopal, 2008). Some novelists defined the subsequent change in a society that marked the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century as a breaking down social structure. They intensively talked about social mares and expressed their topic on realism. According to Darwin, human is an animal creature that is conditioned by influences that are beyond his or her control; thus, human being is devoid of free, moral choice or will. In other words, human is a creature that usually shaped by external factors such as environment, hereditary, and immedia te circumstances pressure. Considering DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s view, though there was a change in both industrial and social life of human nature they both shared some characteristics (Stevenson, 2007). Putting Lewontin work in perspective, as a population geneticist of the nineteenth century, he argued that human species are highly varied in their genes than within racial population. He further noted that racial identity features that include hair, color of the eye, and skin color are more aligned to adaptation that is clearly defined by geographical conditions among other factors (Gopal, 2008). This nineteenth century psychological reasoning overlaid the basic genetics of commonality among the human species. In relation to genetics and human commonality, the psychologists of the twentieth century did not argue much but rather used more sophisticated machine to examine and understand human genes. The contributions of Lewontin limited the applicability of JensenÃ¢â¬â¢s IQ testing between different races. Jansen used conversational racial groups to compare the IQ scores to come to the proof of genetic difference between racial groups (Jeeves, 2006). However, Lewontin dismissed the claims that the consistent difference in genetics lies in the differences in the brain within races. He added that if Jensen could not provide any further evidence, then IQ also was also influenced different physical environment or social.
Police Brutality - Research Paper Example Police more often injure arrestees after they handcuff them or even when they are at the police cells or remand. Many arrestees complain of being hurt by police officers after complying with their orders. Rogue police hit, kick, or even punch arrestees leaving them with a lot of injuries and mental torture (Elicker, 2008). At times, police use excess power when arresting people who are not resistant to the police. Only such power fit to resistant and stubborn suspects but not people who are willing to comply. Some police officers use chock holds when arresting people, which is a very intimidating and demeaning way of handling suspects since they have their human rights till proven guilty. Some police officers go to extend of hitting arrestees and other criminal suspects with harmful and dangerous instruments like guns. This exposes the victims to permanent or short-term effects. Many police brutality victims suffer brain injuries, body deformities, Spinal cord injuries and worse even , others die (Pinizzotto et al., 2012). Some police officers perceive use of electrical shock devices as a convenient way of inducing arrest of suspects. They target getting control of the arrestee without considering the effect of the shock to the individual. Consequently, many arrestees suffer from heart attacks and other personal injuries because of the electrical shock exposed to them. Police officers are only authorized by law to use guns at the last case situation but contrary, police shootings and killings are increasing on a daily basis. As a result, many deaths result from shooting misidentified individuals, and bystanders (Fox, 2011). Due to the high numbers of firing guns, chances of stray bullets are also high therefore increasing the number of deaths of innocent people. At times, police officers use a squad car to chase after a
Monday, August 26, 2019
Walmart - Essay Example This is done to maintain the quality in Hard Rock CafÃ ©. They have rating scale from 1 to 7. If it fails to achieve scale of 7 then the quality and service is believed to be not up to the mark. For efficient process and capacity design, Hard Rock CafÃ © educates their staffs to present high quality entertainment. They design the facility through exclusive design, procuring and displaying unique music related merchandizes that includes Jimi HendrixÃ¢â¬â¢s guitars and music events. Hard Rock CafÃ © follows a systematic approach for location. It narrows down the search from the country to a city then a particular street corner. They try to enter the right market at the right time (University of Mizzou, 2011). Since itÃ¢â¬â¢s a theme restaurant, strategies include music, different visuals and memorabilia. The theme is used to expose memorabilia to customers for the purpose of sales. A dynamic working environment is present and that needs to be inculcated among the staffs. Hard Rock CafÃ © inventories consist of merchandize that are related to the history of rock, i.e. memorabilia, special menus and decorations. They have spent approximately US$ 40 million for collecting rocks-and-roll memorabilia inventories. The outsourcing of the supply chain management assists in reducing the transportation cost, optimizes the distribution network and reduces operational cost by 20% (Avicon, 2003). The schedule is flexible as customers are mostly tourist and this is done to render service according to their demand and culture. With regards to maintenance, they provide exclusive activities and excellent performances. The unique music collection are rotated and shared between branches globally. Avicon, (2003). Avicon Leads Hard Rock CafeÃ¢â¬â¢s Successful Transition to Outsourced Logistics, Fulfillment and Distribution. Avicon Engagement to Provide Improved Working Capital, Inventory Management and Operating Margins. Retrieved Online on March 03, 2011
Sunday, August 25, 2019
EATING AND WEIGHT DISORDERS - Essay Example Obesity, a medical problem in its own right, can result from bingeing and poor food choices. Bulimics binge and then purge (get rid of food by vomiting, taking laxatives, or exercising excessively). Anorexics starve themselves, sometimes to the point of death. A disturbance in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, here one actually fears gaining weight. This would mean an avoidance of regular eating just to remain slim, even sometimes when the subject is so thin that the health is at stake. The subject takes up self-starvation methods. 90 percent of most cases are reported in females, although there are cases of this nature in males yet most of them go unnoticed. It is most common among whites or in societies where there is a high demand on thin ladies or were the only qualification of beauty is seen as being thin. Also in careers that requires for one to be thin, dancing, fashion industry, theater , show business. Patients with anorexia could be spotted trying to hide or cover themselves by wearing baggy and heavy clothes although not so easily, however a well trained psychiatrist or doctor would straightforwardly diagnose the illness. The America Psychiatric Association classified it as a distinct disorder in 1980, Bulimia nervosa could result from patients with anorexia, in this case it does not matter if you are overweight or underweight, patients result in bingeing (large intake of low calorie foods within a short time interval). It is not a known cause of weight loss but it does result in gastrointestinal
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Islam and Democracy - Essay Example Historical interaction between East and West is not obscured from the eye of the world and thereby, all the Western countries especially United States has always been trying to export its democratic principles to the Eastern world, in an order to make Islam compatible with democracy for the overall betterment of the world. Actually, Islam is the dominant religion of the eastern world and for this reason, myriad efforts to inculcate the democratic governing pattern in the minds of the Muslim rulers have always been supported by US. (Al-Hibri 505) claims that the concept of democracy is not what could be called a production of a modernized world, rather it was prevalent in the period of medieval Islam as well. Democracy was a prominent feature of the city Medina where Prophet Muhammad resided and it continued to be strengthening, until its progress and life came to an abrupt halt when Sunnis and ShiÃ¢â¬â¢as separated on the basis of various conflicts regarding the Islamic Caliphate. This means that the doctrine of democracy is not altogether a new concept for the followers of Islam and it has always been an essential feature of the Islamic principles, even before its importance and significance was stressed by the Western rulers. Governance under Islamic Caliphate was en emblem of democracy in which taking care of the choice of the common public meant to be the most important priority for the governors. Islamic Caliphate was truly inspired by the democratic principles and wanted every layman of the society to take active part in the betterment of the nation so that a rich repertoire of innovative constructive ideas could be enhanced and encouraged. After Islam Caliphate however, monarchy based governing system pursued which was largely and visibly devoid of the... This paper stresses that governance under Islamic Caliphate was en emblem of democracy in which taking care of the choice of the common public meant to be the most important priority for the governors. Islamic Caliphate was truly inspired by the democratic principles and wanted every layman of the society to take active part in the betterment of the nation so that a rich repertoire of innovative constructive ideas could be enhanced and encouraged. After Islam Caliphate however, monarchy based governing system pursued which was largely and visibly devoid of the golden democratic laws and systems, due to which Muslims at large remained unsatisfied with their rulers after Caliphate ended and engaged in petty fights fueled by rebellion with each other. Non-democratic or authoritarian based governing system stimulates emergence of ferocious aggressiveness and defiant rebellion in the society due to which unity and harmony fade away completely. This report makes a conclusion that the old Muslim communities were more vigorously representative of the democratic style than the modern Islamic nations. The old Muslim society was highly representative of democracy because back then, the government focused more on issue of law, order, and security, while public was left to deal with the rest of the issues. There used to be a lot of public freedom which shows that Islam has always been compatible with democracy, though a few authoritarian governments have and are still marring the democratic rule from time to time.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Personal reflection - Assignment Example I believe that this form of conceptual learning is not only essential for personal development but is also an area of interest. Personal reflection in general context highlights the overall experience of an individual while working with a group. There are small experiences gathered by an individual in this journey that helps one to restructure their set of values or attitudes. The essay has been divided into four sections which are closely related to one another. Firstly group formation or development will be outlined followed by an approach of conflict management. This particular essay shall encompass importance of leadership role and probable consequences in its absence within a group. The next section of this essay will outline the learning outcomes of this assignment and ways in which it could be implemented in real life scenario. Final section of this essay consists of two main parts such as identifying effects that a conflict can have on an organization and most suitable leader ship approach for handling such conflicts. Conclusion of the essay will include summary remarks of the entire personal experience. While discussing on various aspects of group formation I have used many sources such as consulting my colleagues, going through notes in my diary and even thinking on my personal reflections. I have not highlighted specifically my sources of data and have followed a narrative approach so as to ensure that readers can relate closely with reality. The model portrayed by Tuckman in context of group development briefly outlines four important stages. I shall describe my personal experience which has a strong correlation with the four stages of group development. The model has been elaborated further in figure1. As per figure1, forming stage can be described as one during which bond is established amongst team members. Team members tend to be highly dependent on
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Distraction Plate Fixation Post-Procedure Essay Type III compression injuries o Require operative treatment if ? Intraarticular damage is significant ? Radial shortening is severe o Fixation with multiple Kirschner wires or plates is often necessary, and cancellous bone grafting is frequently required to fill impacted areas. Often a combination of open and closed techniques is necessary to satisfactorily treat type III fractures. Type IV avulsion fractures o Are usually associated with radiocarpal fracture-dislocations and are therefore unstable o Often the avulsed fracture fragments are so small that they can be repaired only with suture. o Secure reduction of the carpus to the distal radius can frequently be achieved only with Kirschner wires. Type V high-velocity fractures o Always unstable, frequently open, and difficult to treat o A combination of percutaneous pinning and external fixation is often necessary. Many of these fractures are so severely comminuted that open reduction is impossible. Ã¢â¬ ¢ CONTRAINDICATIONS Severe medical comorbidities that prevent surgery EQUIPMENT Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Hand tray and hand table Small fragment and mini fragment set Technique-specific tray, as required ANATOMY Ã¢â¬ ¢ The distal radius and ulna may be divided into three distinct columns. o The lateral and medial columns correspond to the scaphoid facet and lunate facets, respectively, of the distal radius. o The medial column is further divided into dorsomedial and volar medial parts. The ulnar column consists of the ulnar styloid and triangular fibrocartilage complex. ? ? Tears of the triangular fibrocartilage occur when the medial column of the distal radius, ulnar styloid, or both are intact. Distal radioulnar joint instability is associated with significant displacement of the ulnar styloid. TECHNIQUES Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Post-Procedure: Distraction Plate Fixation Post-Procedure: Volar Buttress Plate Fixation (Ellis) Post-Procedure: Volar Plating of Intraarticular Compression Injuries (Medoff) Post-Procedure: Distraction Plate Fixation POST-PROCEDURE CARE Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Immediately begin finger and other joint upper extremity exercises. If a splint was applied, it should be removed at 3 weeks. Percutaneous Kirschner wires should be removed at 6 weeks. Activities of daily living are allowed, but lifting should be restricted to 5 lb. Once union is achieved, remove the distraction plate and begin range-of-motion exercises. COMPLICATIONS Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Median nerve injury Reflex sympathetic dystrophy Malunion, nonunion Tendon rupture Infection ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Studies have demonstrated a high percentage of good to excellent outcomes for distraction plate fixation. OUTCOMES AND EVIDENCE Ruch et al reported good to excellent outcomes in 90% of 22 patients using this technique. Procedure: Distraction Plate Fixation Post-Procedure: Volar Buttress Plate Fixation (Ellis) POST-PROCEDURE CARE Ã¢â¬ ¢ Immobilize the wrist and forearm with a plaster sugar tong splint for 2 weeks. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Next, use a removable ball-peen splint, permitting gentle active exercises two or three times a day for the next 2 weeks. All immobilization is removed at 4 weeks and progressive motion continued until union is solid. COMPLICATIONS Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Median nerve injury Reflex sympathetic dystrophy Malunion, nonunion Tendon rupture Infection ANALYSIS OF RESULTS The use of buttress plating for the treatment of distal radius fractures have proven to yield excellent results when surgical intervention occurs early and care is used to obtain anatomic reduction of the fracture. OUTCOMES AND EVIDENCE Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Smith et al: 100% union rate with 71% excellent, 18% good, and 11% fair results. Odumala et al: No difference in development of median nerve symptoms in patients treated with prophylactic carpal tunnel decompression compared with those without decompression. Procedure: Volar Buttress Plate Fixation (Ellis) Post-Procedure: Volar Plating of Intraarticular Compression Injuries (Medoff) POST-PROCEDURE CARE Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep the extremity elevated at all times until postoperative swelling subsides. Beginning on the first postoperative day, remove the splint 2 to 3 times a day for rangeof- motion exercises. Allow clerical work at 2 weeks. Resistive loading is allowed when signs of radiographic union appear. COMPLICATIONS Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Median nerve injury Reflex sympathetic dystrophy Malunion, nonunion Tendon rupture Infection ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Studies have demonstrated a high percentage of good to excellent outcomes for the Medoff system. OUTCOMES AND EVIDENCE Medoff reported 20 good to excellent results in 21 patients with intraarticular comminuted distal radial fractures treated with the TriMed Wrist Fixation System (TriMed, Valencia, Calif. ). Procedure: Volar Plating of Intraarticular Compression Injuries (Medoff) PRE-OPERATIVE AND POST OPERATIVE CARE Care of Pre-operative Patient Nursing Diagnosis Knowledge deficit R/T pre-op care. Expected Outcome Patient/parent will verbalize understanding of pre- post-op care. Nursing Intervention 1. Implement pre- post-op teaching program. 2. Document response. 1. Remove nail polish, make-up. 2. Bathe and shampoo the night before surgery. 3. Betadine scrub to surgical area. 4. Dress in hospital clothing after scrub. 1. NPO as ordered. 2. Sign at bedside; NPO sticker on patient. Potential aspiration R/T general No aspiration. anesthesia. 3. Re-emphasize importance of NPO to patient and parent; empty water pitcher and glass from bedside; check crib for bottles. 1. Explain procedures. 2. Provide time for patient/parent to ask questions, express fears or concerns. . Offer reassurance. Potential alteration of vital functions R/T surgery. Normal parameters for patients vital signs established. 1. Obtain baseline assessment of all systems ; N/V status within 8 hours pre-op. Potential infection R/T surgical procedure. Infection free post-op. Potential anxiety R/T surgery. Decreased anxiety. 2. Assess V. S. within 2 hours pre-op. Care of Post-operative Patient Nu rsing Diagnosis Knowledge deficit R/T post-operative care. Expected Outcome Patient and family will verbalize and demonstrate understanding of postoperative care. Patient and family will cope effectively with surgical postoperative process. Nursing Intervention 1. Implement post-operative teaching program. 2. Document response. 1. Explain procedures. 2. Provide time for questions, expression of concerns and fears. 3. Offer reassurance. Potential anxiety R/T surgery, post-operative care. Potential respiratory Patient will not experience compromise R/T general respiratory compromise. anesthesia. 1. Assess breath sounds-HR/RR at least q shift. 2. Turn, cough and deep breathe q2 hrs. 3. Record vital signs. Patient will Alteration in comfort R/T verbalize/demonstrate relief surgery. rom pain. Potential neurovascular Patient will not experience compromise R/T surgical neurovascular compromise procedure. . 1. Assess for pain and medicate per protocol. 2. Reposition for comfort as ordered/prn. 1. Assess surgical site or affected extremity for color, capillary refill, sensation, temperature, pulses and active/passive ROM as ordered. 2. Document neurova scular status as ordered. 3. Report any neurovascular compromise to M. D. 4. Position extremity with elevation if ordered. 5. Apply ice or heat as ordered. Potential alteration in level of consciousness R/T anesthesia. Patient will exhibit appropriate LOC. 1. Assess LOC q shift. 1. Monitor I/O q hour with IV or foley. 2. Begin ice chips or clear liquids slowly as ordered. 3. Maintain IV fluids as ordered. 4. Call M. D. for catheter order if unable to void after surgery. 5. Assess GU status q shift. Potential alteration in bowel elimination R/T Patient will have BM by postanesthesia and postoperative day #4. operative immobilization Potential alteration in skin integrity R/T immobility. Patient will not experience skin breakdown. 1. Mobilize as ordered. 2. Administer laxative of choice or suppository for no BM after 3 days. . Assess GI status q shift. 1. Assess skin q shift. 2. Provide daily nursing care. Potential alteration in fluid balance R/T surgery. Patient will have adequate fluid intake and urine output. Medical Diagnoses: Impaired Physical Mobility, Acute pain, secondary to fractured left femur, ORIF surgery, Musculosketeal impairment Assessme Nursing Client Nursing *I Evaluation nt DX/Clin ical Goals/Desired Interventions/Actions/ Goals Interventio Problem Outcomes/Object Orders and Rationale ns ives Subjectiv Problem: Long Term: * Apply any ordered X Goal met. Continue e brace before Pt was intervention Impaired Pt will be able to mobilizing the client. able to s as listed. Pt Physical ambulate around ambulate Encourage screams Mobility the nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ Rationale: around pt to when station 2X by Ã¢â¬Å"Brace support and the continue the staff discharge. stablilize a body part, nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ use of attempts allowing increased station by braces and to move mobility. Ã¢â¬ (Ackley ; discharge. assistive the left Ladwig, 2008, p 552). Pt was devices lower able to after extremity *Increase complete discharge Pt demonstr ates difficulty with any movemen t of the left lower extremity . independence in ADLs Rationale: Ã¢â¬Å"Providing unnecessary assistance with transfers and activities may promote dependence and a loss of mobility. Ã¢â¬ (Ackley ; Ladwig, 2008, p 552). *Obtain any assistive devices needed for activity. Rationale: Ã¢â¬Å"Assistive devices can help increase mobility. Ã¢â¬ (Ackley ; Ladwig, 2008, p 552). R/T: Short Term: O bjective Pt states that his pain level is a 9 on a 10 point pain rating scale. is activity until he more than feels twice. Pt comfortable did not c/o. complain Encourage of any the pt to pain or continue his discomfort independen upon ce in ADLs ambulatio and c/o n. unnecessary assistance. Pt states Ã¢â¬Å"I feel like IÃ¢â¬â¢m finally getting back to my old self. Ã¢â¬ X Goal met. Pt able to fully complete passive range of motion exercises with assistance from the staff by the end of this shift. Pt did not complain of any pain associated with exercise session. Continue intervention s as listed. Continue to assess pain using the 10 point pain scale q4 hrs or PRN. Continue to provide pain control and treat as needed. *Assess the ptÃ¢â¬â¢s pain Acute Pt will perform by using the 10 point pain, passive range of pain rating scale q4 hrs secondary motion exercises or PRN. to by the end of this fractured shift. Rationale: left femur Ã¢â¬Å"Single- item ratings of Pt pain intensity are valid grimaces ORIF and reliable as during surgery measures of pain any kind intensity. of motion Anxiety or Ã¢â¬Å"The clientÃ¢â¬â¢s report of movemen Musculosk pain is the single most t of his eteal reliable indicator of left lower impairmen pain. Ã¢â¬ extremity t (Ackley ; Ladwig, 2008, p. 604-605). AEB PtÃ¢â¬â¢s ORIF *Before activity, treat Grimacing surgery pain. during movement Rationale: or activity Ã¢â¬Å"Pain limits mobility and is often Pt complaints about pain and discomfort Pt pain rating of 9 out of 10. Surgery that is 2 days postop exacerbated by movement. Ã¢â¬ (Ackley ; Ladwig, 2008, p 552).
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
History of computing Essay Way back in early history, when people relied mainly on their brains to perform calculations, people used their fingers, pebbles, and tally sticks for computing purposes. Various attempts were made to build general-purpose programmable computers from the same mechanical devices used in calculators. But the problems posed by the lack of technology at the time were not satisfactorily solved until the introduction of electronic computing techniques in the mid-20th century. Between Pascals invention and around 1820 there were about 25 manufacturers of calculating machines; most of them were the work of one man. Few of them worked correctly and even less actually reached the manufacturing line. In the mid-19th century Charles Babbage, a visionary British mathematician at Cambridge University, designed the first computers to perform multistep operations automatically. The technologies were entirely mechanical. He called this first computing machine the Difference Engine, and it was intended to compute and print mathematical tables automatically. The Difference Engine performed only one arithmetic operation: addition. Babbage constructed a small portion of his first Difference Engine in 1832, which served as a demonstration prototype. The first widely known general-purpose electronic computer was the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) that John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert built at the University of Pennsylvania. The primary motivation for the ENIAC was the need to construct ballistic tables for the U. S. Army. Work began on the ENIAC in 1943 and in 1946 it was completed. It was an enormous machine weighing about 30 tons and filling a 30 by 50 foot room. It contained 1,500 electromechanical relays and over 18,000 vacuum tubes and when it was switched on it consumed 150,000 watts of energy. Despite its enormous size it stored only the equivalent of 80 characters of information. However, it was substantially faster than any previous computer. The idea of storing programs and their data in the same high-speed memory the stored-program concept was first put forth by von Neumann in a publication entitled, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer). The IAS machine in its overall design is quite modern, and can be regarded as the prototype of most subsequent general-purpose computers. It had the general structure depicted in Figure 4. It had a CPU (Central Processing Unit) for executing instructions, a main memory for storing active programs, a secondary memory for backup storage, and miscellaneous input-output equipment. The IBM PC series was introduced in 1981 and quickly became the de facto standard for this class of machine. IBM made a smart decision by making the architecture of the PC open, meaning its design specifications were available to other manufacturers of computers and software. As a result of this decision the IBM PC became very popular and many versions of it, PC clones, were produced by others. Many other significant achievements have occurred in the PC era and continue to occur with the widespread use of the Internet and networked computers. Here are a few other notable historical achievements having to do with PCs: o 1976 The Cray 1 Supercomputer was the first commercially developed supercomputer. It contained 200,000 ICs and was cooled by Freon. o 1977 Apple II computer introduced. o 1979 Commodore Pet released, with 1 MHz computing power, 8K RAM, cassette deck, and 9 monitor displaying monochrome text. o 1979 The compact disk was invented. o 1982 The TCP/IP network communications protocol was established and the Internet was formed as a connected set of networks using TCP/IP. o 1982 Commodore 64 released, costing just i 595. o 1982 Compaq releases their IBM PC compatible, the Compaq Portable. o 1983 The IBM XT is released. This machine had a 10MB hard disk, 128KB of RAM, one floppy drive, a mono monitor, and a printer, all for i5000. What a bargain! o 1984 Apple Macintosh released. o 1985 Microsoft Windows launched, but not really widely used until version 3 in 1990. o 1987 IBM introduced its PS/2 System which was very successful, selling over 2 million machines in less than 2 years. o 1989 The World Wide Web (WWW) is invented by Tim Berners-Lee who saw the need for global information exchange that would allow physicists to collaborate on research. The Web was a result of the integration of hypertext and the Internet. Hyperlinked pages could not only provide information but could provide transparent access to other pages of information as well as other Internet facilities such as ftp, telnet, Gopher, WAIS, and USENET. The Web started out as a text-only interface but NCSA Mosaic, an early browser, later presented a graphical interface for it and its popularity exploded as it became accessible to the novice user. The explosion of the Web started in earnest during 1993 and in a single year Web traffic increased by 300,000%. o 1990 Windows 3. 0 introduced by Microsoft. This graphical user interface OS offered true multi-tasking, meaning you could run multiple programs at the same time. o 1993 The Pentium microprocessor released by Intel. It was only available at that time in 60 and 66 MHz versions. o 1995 Windows 95 operating system released by Microsoft. o 1995 Pentium Pro microprocessor released. o 1997 Pentium MMX (166 and 200 MHz) released. o 1997 Pentium II (233, 266, and 300 MHz) released. o 1998 Windows 98 released. o 1999 Linux, a free alternative operating system to Microsofts Windows, is estimated to be running on over 10 million computers worldwide.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Financial Analysis Of Tesco PLC Tesco Plc is a leading UK retailer that operates in 13 countries across Asia, Europe and the United States. In order to evaluate Tescos financial positions in the market, vertical, horizontal and ratio analyses will be implemented. In addition, this report will benchmark two main competitors of the company, namely Morrisons and Sainsburys. Finally, in conclusion it will provide some recommendation for future investors and for those who are considering future employment in the company. 1. Review of Tescos financial fundamentals over the last 5 years. In order to examine Tescos performance, vertical analysis of the financial fundamentals for 2006-2010 would be implemented. 1.1 Income statement trends Table 3: % change PL account 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Sales 8.08% 10.92% 13.95% 5.59% Cost of sales 8.17% 10.83% 13.84% 5.21% Gross profit 14.37% 4.82% 15.29% 10.08% Expenses 8.27% 10.47% 14.48% 5.80% Operating profit 16.14% 5.40% 13.54% 9.09% Finance income -21.05% 107.78% -37.97% 128.45% Finance cost -10.4% 15.7% 91.2% 21.13% Tax 18.95% -12.8% 17.8% 6.6% Retained profits 20.49% 12.16% 0.38% 9.26% Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2007/10 Sales are the main measures for business growth. Tescos revenue has increased by 7.14% per year for the last 5 years. The slowing GDP growth and the deteriorating consumer confidence, which was result of the recent economic downturn, were the main reasons for the recent slowdown in the rate of growth. The absolute level of sales has still increased. of the companys sales levels. Notwithstanding the challenging economic environment, Tesco managed to maintain strong margins due to significant investments in new stores and lower prices, better pay rates and effective cost management. The lowest operating and gross profits figures were registered in 2007/2008 but this was a result of Ã £89m investment in US and integration cost from market acquisitions in Czech Republic, Poland and Malaysia. The most significant figure in 2009 is the increased amount of finance costs, from Ã £250m to Ã £478m or by 91.2% that was result of increased average net debt level slinked to acquisitions and foreign exchange movements, higher coupon rates on commercial paper and unfavourable changes in the non-cash IFRS elements of the interest charge (Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2009). This considerably affected retained profits and a slight increase by 0.38% was registered. Finally, in 2010 there was a significant increase of the finance income by 128.45%, resulting growth in the retained profits by 9.26% due to the consolidation of Tesco Bank. 1.2 Balance sheet trends Table 4: 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Current assets 16.76% 37.67% 122.94% -16.23% Inventories 31.90% 25.84% 9.84% 2.25% Trade receivables 20.96% 21.50% 37.15% 5.01% Non-current assets 8.51% 17.96% 34.45% 6.77% Current liabilities 9.69% 25.90% 75.78% -11.23% Non-current liabilities 8.62% 31.48% 87.75% 2.06% Shareholders funds/Equity 11.93% 12.59% 9.18% 12.97% Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2007/10 According to the balance sheet in 2007, the increase in stock and debtors outpaced sales that was quite inconvenience, while the fixed assets were satisfactory. The problem with the stock trend was reversed in 2009 and 2010, but the debtors level, and the liabilities along with the fixed assets grew faster than sales in 2009 as a result of the economic downturn and the consumers uncertainty (see table 4). 2. Ratio Analysis of Tesco Financial ratio analysis is one of the most common methods that provides a quick and relatively simple means of assessing the financial health of a business ( Atrill McLaney, 2006, pp168). 2.1 Profitability Ratios Profitability ratios provide an insight to the degree of success in achieving this purpose (Atrill McLaney, 2006, pp169). Table 5: 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 ROSF 16.69% 17.96% 17.90% 16.57% 15.91% ROCE 12.70% 12.60% 12.70% 12.80% 12.10% Net profit margin 5.78% 6.21% 5.90% 5.88% 6.07% Gross profit margin 7.67% 8.12% 7.67% 7.76% 8.10% Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2007/10 According to table 5 Tescos ROSF ratios vary between 16-18% and ROCE between 12-13%. In 2007 and 2008 the ratios are tend to increase while in 2010 a considerable drop can be noticed. This reduction is result of the companys strategy to continue investment even during the recession that has affected the returns in short term, but at the same time it promises progress in long term aspect (Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010). Net profit and gross profit margin ratios have been also remarkably consistent over the 5 years period. Despite the recent economic downturn, Tesco managed to maintain its strong positions and due to efficient cost management, price cuts and increased focus on its clubcard loyalty cart, it raised pre-tax profit by 9% in 2010 (http://www.guardian.co.uk). 2.2 Efficiency Ratios Table 6: 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Stock turnover period (days) 15 18 20 19 19 Sales revenue to cap.employed (times) 2.62 2.56 2.38 1.93 1.90 UK Sales revenue per employee 170,923 177,084 179,840 196,436 196,120 Profit per employee 10,190 11,292 10,814 13,065 14,303 UK Sales per square foot 1303 1325 1322 1318 1311 Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2007/10 Generally, the efficiency of Tescos performance during the last 5 years is persistent. Stock turnover ratio has been remarkably steady and has varied between 19-20 days over the last 4 years which is evidence for a good control of stock. However, from 2006 to 2010 sales revenue to capital employed ratio decreased significantly from 2.62 to 1.90 (by 27.5%) which was result of the considerable increase in the level of shareholders funds and non-current liabilities (by 173% and 55% respectively). Additionally, the most important ratios measuring business efficiency are sales per employee and profit per employee. Tescos ratios are satisfactory notwithstanding the declines in 2008 that are understandable bearing in mind the challenging economic conditions (see table 6). 2.3 Liquidity Ratios According to McLaney Atrill liquidity is vital to the survival of a business for there to be sufficient liquid resources available to meet maturing obligations (Atrill McLaney, 2006, pp169). Table 7: 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Current ratio 0.52 0.56 0.61 0.75 0.73 Acid test ratio 0.33 0.32 0.37 0.60 0.56 Cash generated from operations to maturing obligations 0.45 0.43 0.40 0.28 0.37 Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2007/10 Tescos liquidity has considerably improved over the 5 years period due to strong cash generations and tight control of capital expenditure. Working capital also increased significantly, by 20%. However, liquidity ratios are still very low, current ratio varying from 0.5 to 0.7 and acid test ratio from 0.3 to 0.5. This seems disastrously when referencing to some textbooks that suggest that current ratio should be around 2 and the acid ratio should be around 1. But according to Atrill McLaney (2006) the current ratio will vary from business to business and a supermarket chain will have a relatively low ratio, as it will hold only fast-moving inventories of finished goods and all of its sales will be made for cash (no credit sales) (trill McLaney, 2006, pp 187). (See table 7) 2.4 Financial Gearing Ratio Gearing ratio is one of the most important indicators regarding the degree of risk associated with a businessÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦it tends to highlight the extent to which the business uses loan finance (Atrill McLaney, 2006, pp169). Table 8: 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Gearing ratio 37.23% 36.53% 40.03% 53.86% 51.08% Interest cover ratio 6.26 7.04 6.81 5.64 5.01 Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2007/10 There are no significant changes of Tescos gearing ratio during the last 5 years; it peaked at 53.9% in 2009 due to the significant increase of the long-term liabilities and the shareholders fund resulted of Homever acquisition in South Africa. On the other hand, interest cover ratio decreased significantly from 7 in 2007 to 5 in 2010, but the company still will not have problem to meet its interest (see table 8). 2.5 Investment ratios Investment ratios give an answer to the key question whether shares should be bought, sold or hold. Table 9: 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Earnings per share 20.04 22.36 26.95 27.14 29.33 P/E ratio 16.5 19.9 14.6 11.5 13.2 Dividend per share 8.63 9.64 10.9 11.96 13.05 Dividend cover 3.57 4.07 2.69 2.42 2.41 Dividend payout 27.98% 24.59% 37.18% 41.30% 41.44% Dividend yield 2.6% 2.2% 2.7% 3.6% 3.1% cash from operations /number of shares 0.44 0.45 0.52 0.63 0.75 Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2007/10 Tescos earnings per share ratio has increased by around 46% over the last five years, which is a good trend. Dividend per share also registered an excellent growth by 51% for the 5 year period. Dividend cover ratio is another important ratio that determines whether company is attractive for investors. Tescos dividend cover ratio is decreasing significantly over the last 3 years, which is good for investors looking for capital appreciation. However, low dividend cover is unattractive for those seeking income (Fitzgerald, (2002, pp160). Dividend yield is another important investment indicator showing the actual return provided by the company. For 2006-2010 Tescos dividend yield ratio has been quite variable, the lowest rate was 2.2% in 2007 and the highest was 3.6% in 2009. In 2009 the high yield was affected by economic situation and the company was expected to have low profits growth. In contrast, low dividend yields mean that the company is expected to grow its profits quickly (Arno ld, 2004, pp 191) (See table 9). In addition, in 2009 the lowest P/E ratio was registered again because of the expectation for slowdown in profits (Arnold, 2004, pp 187). 3. Benchmark the performance of Tesco Nowadays, retail industry is characterised by very intense competition and in order to obtain clearer picture of Tescos growth, it would be useful to benchmark the company to some of its main competitors, namely Morrisons and Sainsburys, evaluating some fundamental financial indicators. Firstly, it should be taken into consideration the fact Morrisons and Sainsburys operates only at national level and Tesco is operating internationally. Therefore, there would be some significant differences in their indices in comparison to Tesco. Figure 1: Figure 2: Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010, Morrisons annual report and financial statements 2010 J Sainsbury plc Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010 Figure 1 clearly shows that for 2010, Tesco is the market leader with 63% sales levels compared to the whole three companies revenue. Sainsburys is the second with 22% and Morrisons is the third, registering 16% sales. In terms of profitability good sign is that all the three companies have managed to maintain its position even during the economic recession and continue to increase their profit numbers. However, comparing Morrisons and Sainsburys uncertain fact is that they obtained almost the same levels of profit in 2010, bearing in mind that Sainsburys is much bigger than Morrisons. Thus, Morrisons is found to be more efficient with margin of 5.9%, comparing to Sainsburys ratio of 3.6% (see figure 2). Additionally, while Morrisons and Sainsburys increased their return on capital employed ratio, even slightly, Tesco registered a significant drop in 2010, by 0.7%, result of the consolidation of Tesco Bank. However, from investors point of view, in long term, this is not an inconvenience trend because it will take some time until Tesco Bank start making any profits (see figure 2). Figure 3: Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010, Morrisons annual report and financial statements 2010 J Sainsbury plc Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010 When it comes to productivity, for 2010, again Tesco is on the top with the highest level of sales per square ft in UK, followed by Sainsburys and Morrisons. In terms of sales per employee, there is not a significant difference between the three retails, although Morrisons is presenting more convenience levels in contrast to Sainsburys (see figure 3). Figure4: Figure 5: Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010, Morrisons annual report and financial statements 2010 J Sainsbury plc Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010 From all the three companies, in 2010 Tesco registered the highest level of gearing, 51.08%, Sainsburys 38.4% and Morrisons 25.1%, which means Tesco I highly geared. This is not necessary uncertain fact because Tesco is a mature business with strong and reliable cash flows that can allow higher level. In terms of interest cover, Morrisons presents the most convinience positions with ratio of 15.11. Sainsburys and Tescos rates are low (see figure 4 5). Figure 6: Source: Tesco PLC Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010, Morrisons annual report and financial statements 2010 J Sainsbury plc Annual Report and Financial Statements 2010 Finally, Morrisons has the highest earnings per share ratio, 30.36p, but at the same time and the highest dividend cover, which is not very attractive for investors seeking income. Those investors would be more attracted by Sainsburys and Tescos ratio that are quite low, 2.43 and 2.41, respectively (see figure 6). Evaluation Conclusion Based on the analysis above, it could be concluded that Tesco is a growing company that demonstrates very convenience performance over the last 5 Years, increasing revenues and profits. However, in order to take objective investment decision, share prices and dividend trends should be taken into consideration. Over the last 5 years Tesco has increased its market shares. In October 2010, Tesco PLC reported semi annual 2011 earnings of 16.43 per share that is better than the last years result for the same period by 18.20% (markets.ft.com). In comparison to the FTSE 100 Index, for example, it also demonstrates good trends; over the last week Tesco outperformed the FTSE 100 Index (markets.ft.com) (see Table 10). On the other hand, Tescos current share prices (432.00p) do not seem so attractive, comparing to its rivals with lowest prices, Morissons- 269.20p and Sainsburys-376.00p. Additionally, in terms of the dividend yield rates, there is a significant drop from 3.6% in 2009 to 3.1% in 2010. This could be caused by several factors, but at the same time, it could be a warning sign that the prices are raised excessively and they might be overpriced (moneyweek.com). Table 10: Name 1 Week 1 Month 6 Month 1 Year 5 Year Tesco PLC -0.24% +2.48% +8.74% +2.57% +30.59% FTSE 100 Index +1.42% +1.63% +12.91% +10.83% +6.70% Source: Tesco PLC, markets.ft.com Finally, according to the Tescos ratio analysis and the benchmark there are some other uncertainties regarding liquidity and gearing in comparison to Morrisons and Sainsburys, for example. Thus, notwithstanding the satisfying dividend and earnings per share and the strong performance of Tesco, the current share prices do not look very attractive for buying. In this case, Morrisons might be more attractive for future investment noting its successful nationwide expansion, fast growing trend and low share prices. At first glance Tesco seems an attractive place to work as it has significant growth potential and has very strong positions in the market. The companys employment policy is very Overall you have made a good start here. You need to analyse the current share price, dividend yield and P/E ratio for Tesco to see whether it is worth investing. Even if Tesco is a strong performer in a business sense that doesnt mean we should buy its shares. The strength may already be reflected in the share price or, indeed, the shares may be overpriced. You need to look at share price trends and compare with the FTSE 100 or with an index for the food and drug retail sector. Or you could examine TSR and compare that with the competittion. You need to try to get a feel for whether the shares should be bought at the current price. You also havent answered the employment question you need to find some employee related data.
How MTV Maintains Its Dominance Music Television, a basic cable service known by its acronym MTV, remains the dominant music video outlet utilizing effective marketing and competitive business practices throughout its nineteen year history. The creation of the "I Want My MTV" marketing campaign and use of the campaign throughout the 1980's helped the cable outlet secure a substantial subscriber base. MTV dealt with competition from cable mogul Ted Turner's Cable Music Channel by creating a fighting brand, sister cable service VH-1, along with facing challenges by numerous other music video programming services. Through exclusivity agreements with record labels for music videos and limiting access to cable systems owned by MTV's parent company, MTV exercised anticompetitive and monopolistic means to fend off competition. From its launch, MTV successfully applied these marketing and competitive business practices. The board of the Warner - AMEX Satellite Entertainment Company (WASEC), a partnership between Warner Communications and American Express, gave approval in mid-January 1981 for the creation of a cable service that would broadcast music videos . Music videos, song length visual depictions used in the promotion of a musical act's latest release, were already popular on European television since the mid 1970s. A deadline of August 1, 1981 was set for the launch of this new cable service as programs featuring music videos were beginning to appear on cable outlets such as Home Box Office and USA Network. The set-up and programming of the entire operation was to be established in approximately six-and-a-half months. Bob Pittman, a WASEC programming executive with a background in radio, wanted to ensure the new music video outlet delivered programming that appealed to its target audience of twelve to thirty-four-year-olds. This age demographic was both desirable and difficult for advertisers to reach as young adults typically did not watch much of what television offered at the time. He determined that, with little exception, the cable service would have no distinguishable programs. Video upon video would be presented by on-air personalities dubbed video jockeys, veejays for short, who would also provide entertainment news and conduct artist interviews. The absence of scheduled programming was, as stated by Tom McGrath in MTV: The Maki... ..., Tom. MTV: The Making of a Revolution. (Pennsylvania: Running, 1996), p. 47. Ibid., p. 53. Ibid., p. 47. Ibid., p. 48. Ibid., p. 48. Ibid., p. 50. Banks, Jack. Monopoly Television: MTV's Quest to Control the Music. (Colorado: Westview, 1996), p. 34. McGrath, Tom. MTV: The Making of a Revolution. (Pennsylvania: Running, 1996), p. 62-63. Ibid., p. 80. Ibid., p. 80. Ibid., p. 81. Ibid., p. 81. Ibid., p88. Ibid., p. 88-89. Ibid., p. 89. Ibid., p. 124. Ibid., p. 124. Ibid., p. 125. Ibid., p. 125, 129. Ibid., p. 129. "Ted Turner Turns off the Music." The Economist. 8 December 1984: 77. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Denisoff, R. Serge. Inside MTV. (New Jersey: Transaction, 1988), p. 155. Ibid., p. 155. Ibid., p. 155. Ibid., p. 156. Bibliography: Banks, Jack. Monopoly Television: MTV's Quest to Control the Music. Colorado: Westview, 1996. Denisoff, R. Serge. Inside MTV. New Jersey: Transaction, 1988. McGrath, Tom. MTV: The Making of a Revolution. Pennsylvania: Running, 1996. "Ted Turner Turns off the Music." The Economist. 8 December 1984: 77. How MTV Maintains Its Dominance Essay -- essays papers How MTV Maintains Its Dominance Music Television, a basic cable service known by its acronym MTV, remains the dominant music video outlet utilizing effective marketing and competitive business practices throughout its nineteen year history. The creation of the "I Want My MTV" marketing campaign and use of the campaign throughout the 1980's helped the cable outlet secure a substantial subscriber base. MTV dealt with competition from cable mogul Ted Turner's Cable Music Channel by creating a fighting brand, sister cable service VH-1, along with facing challenges by numerous other music video programming services. Through exclusivity agreements with record labels for music videos and limiting access to cable systems owned by MTV's parent company, MTV exercised anticompetitive and monopolistic means to fend off competition. From its launch, MTV successfully applied these marketing and competitive business practices. The board of the Warner - AMEX Satellite Entertainment Company (WASEC), a partnership between Warner Communications and American Express, gave approval in mid-January 1981 for the creation of a cable service that would broadcast music videos . Music videos, song length visual depictions used in the promotion of a musical act's latest release, were already popular on European television since the mid 1970s. A deadline of August 1, 1981 was set for the launch of this new cable service as programs featuring music videos were beginning to appear on cable outlets such as Home Box Office and USA Network. The set-up and programming of the entire operation was to be established in approximately six-and-a-half months. Bob Pittman, a WASEC programming executive with a background in radio, wanted to ensure the new music video outlet delivered programming that appealed to its target audience of twelve to thirty-four-year-olds. This age demographic was both desirable and difficult for advertisers to reach as young adults typically did not watch much of what television offered at the time. He determined that, with little exception, the cable service would have no distinguishable programs. Video upon video would be presented by on-air personalities dubbed video jockeys, veejays for short, who would also provide entertainment news and conduct artist interviews. The absence of scheduled programming was, as stated by Tom McGrath in MTV: The Maki... ..., Tom. MTV: The Making of a Revolution. (Pennsylvania: Running, 1996), p. 47. Ibid., p. 53. Ibid., p. 47. Ibid., p. 48. Ibid., p. 48. Ibid., p. 50. Banks, Jack. Monopoly Television: MTV's Quest to Control the Music. (Colorado: Westview, 1996), p. 34. McGrath, Tom. MTV: The Making of a Revolution. (Pennsylvania: Running, 1996), p. 62-63. Ibid., p. 80. Ibid., p. 80. Ibid., p. 81. Ibid., p. 81. Ibid., p88. Ibid., p. 88-89. Ibid., p. 89. Ibid., p. 124. Ibid., p. 124. Ibid., p. 125. Ibid., p. 125, 129. Ibid., p. 129. "Ted Turner Turns off the Music." The Economist. 8 December 1984: 77. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Denisoff, R. Serge. Inside MTV. (New Jersey: Transaction, 1988), p. 155. Ibid., p. 155. Ibid., p. 155. Ibid., p. 156. Bibliography: Banks, Jack. Monopoly Television: MTV's Quest to Control the Music. Colorado: Westview, 1996. Denisoff, R. Serge. Inside MTV. New Jersey: Transaction, 1988. McGrath, Tom. MTV: The Making of a Revolution. Pennsylvania: Running, 1996. "Ted Turner Turns off the Music." The Economist. 8 December 1984: 77.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Rebellion of Nora and Mrs. Linde in A Doll's House Ã An underlying theme in Ibsen's play, A Doll's House is the rebellion of Nora and Mrs. Linde against society. Over the course of the play, Nora and Mrs. Linde both experienced an evolution from passive victims in a life pre-programmed for them by society to active agents in an uncertain and insecure life. Ã In an effort to save her husband's life, Nora has committed forgery and Krogstad is ready to use this information in order achieve his goals: ''(...) if I produce this document in court, you'll be condemned'' (Ibsen 791). This element gives us a hint of women condition in a deeply- rooted man thought society. In addition, Dr. Rank, who had a lethal disease, confesses his love for her: ''You know now that I'm at your service, body and soul'' (Ibsen 802). All these events make the circle tighten and spin faster around Nora, who can hardly resist to this pressure and seeks the relief in wildly dancing the 'tarantella', a dance which she transforms into a ' life and death' one. Ã This dance can also be viewed as an one of the key element that permits us to say that she's passing from a state of passive victim to an early state of active agent : '' Nora dances more and more wildly. Helmer stands by the stove giving her repeated directions as she dances ; she does not seem to hear them. ''(Ibsen 808). All the other characters' reactions, words and attitudes form the chain which unbearably surrounds Nora and which she will finally break, liberating herself from the lie she has been living in for many years-she firmly tells Helmer her decision : '' I can't stay here with you any longer (...). I'm leaving here at once''(Ibsen 821).Ã In addition to this intimate inter-independence between Nora and the other four important characters viewed as a whole), is the complexity of Helmer's wife as a dramatic personage. Compared to the others, Nora is the most ' round' character, one who we see evolving, in contrast with Helmer or Dr. Rank. More precisely, we discover tw o forms of evolution of this character : Ã 1.an 'external' one, produced in the reader's mind, as he discovers the purpose of her always asking money to the husband and having a 'toy attitude' with him ;
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Abstract The world is separated by many barriers that are today being overcome by technology. Leading the way in this explosion are American based media corporations. Earlier on many businesses saw investing in operations overseas as being a waste of money and time. Americans have had the tendency to think that the world revolves around them. This thought process has kept many companies from expanding into the international markets. The American culture dominance in regards to music, style and way of life is spreading like wildfire through out the world. Issue Paper American Based Media Corporations: Opening the Global Lines of Communication In the last twenty years technology has made expansion into overseas arenas much easier than ever before. Today American companies are relentlessly trying to capitalize on the popularity of the US culture in foreign markets. Media companies cross nationalism is no surprise in light of the fact that they have always been operating on the cutting edge. The media has a great deal of control over what people see, hear and read on a daily basis. Technology has benefited a great deal from media companies exposing new inventions and other advancements for the public to see. Media companies are also responsible for the spread of the American pop culture, which has endeared itself to many in different countries. The are several media companies capitalizing on the American pop culture boom, but the focus of this paper will be placed on three specific types of media corporations. The Associated Press, AT&T and YAR Communications deal in totally different areas of media but they all have one thing in common, they have intensely sought after the foreign market. The Associated Press In 18... ...In order to remain profitable in such competitive market a company must provide a product or service that spans the global in appeal. The vast media arena is ever changing as innovative young minds continue to find new ways to make success an inevitable fact. In essence the public will have the final say so in which business will sink or swim in the media global marketplace. The tough decisions are made on the streets and not in the boardroom. Over the years the streets have called for a more diversified aspect of the media. The companies mentioned above are leaders in this respective services they provide and will continue to play a major role in global media. Works Cited "The Associated Press." Website. http://www.ap.org/ anniversary/nhistory/past50.html. "AT&T Corp." Website. http://www.att.com/att/. "YAR Communications." Website. http://www.yar.com/en/.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that the plate tectonic theory is validÃ¢â¬ Discuss the extent to which you agree with this statement (40). The theory of plate tectonics explains the structure and motion of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s lithosphere. The theory states that the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust is split into large sections called tectonic plates, and these move relative to one another creating boundaries at which the plates converge, diverge or move past each other.These plates are either continental or oceanic and are powered by convection currents, which is the circular movement of magma that comes from within the mantle. These currents are powered by the core, which heats the magma, causing it to rise, cool and fall back down. This circular motion causes the plates, which float on the mantle, to move. In 1912, Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist, was the first man to state that the continents were once joined in a super continent called Pangaea, conversely he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t explain why and what happened to cause the plates to move apart.He based his theory on the extraordinary fit of the South American and African continent coastlines. Notably the eastern edge of South America and the western edge of Africa showed very similar geological features suggesting that at some point in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s history the landmasses were joined together. Another indicator that the continents were once distributed differently was geological evidence of glaciations in India Ã¢â¬â it is unlikely that glaciers could ever reach such low latitudes, but this problem can easily be explained by the theory of continental drift.Fossil distribution also provided some of the earliest evidence for plate tectonics. Interestingly, plant and animal fossils were found on the matching coastlines of South America and Africa. These are now widely separated by the Atlantic Ocean, therefore he reasoned that is physically impossible for most of t hese organisms to have swum or have been transported across the wide oceans. From this he suggested that the plates were once connected. Unfortunately, at the time of WegnerÃ¢â¬â¢s work many of the geophysical tools that are used today did not exist making the theory much more difficult to support.Since the original theory in 1912, newer evidence has appeared which supports the theory. In 1962 Hess studied the age of rocks around the mid-Atlantic ridge. He discovered that the newest rocks were closest to the ridge and the oldest were towards the USA and Caribbean. He therefore reasoned that the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust was expanding along the oceanic ridges, so it must be shrinking elsewhere. According to Hess, the Atlantic Ocean was expanding while the Pacific Ocean was shrinking. The old oceanic crust was consumed in the trenches causing new magma to rise and erupt along the spreading ridges to form a new crust.He explained why the earth doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get bigger with sea floor spre ading and why there is so little sediment accumulation on the ocean floor, and why oceanic rocks are so much younger than continental ones. Paleomagnetism is one of the strongest pieces of evidence for plate tectonic theory and was developed to convince scientists of the theories validity. Basalt lava forms volcanoes when it rises to the surface, cools and then forms land. When new crust is formed certain minerals align themselves with the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s magnetic field.Fascinatingly, new technology has shown that the magnetic field of the Earth is known to reverse every few hundred thousand years. So this implies new material is constantly being produced and the sea floor is spreading. However, as the Earth is not changing in size, material is being destroyed in other areas which are called subduction zones, and the position of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust must be constantly changing. Seismic activity can also tell us a great deal about plate tectonics. Plotting the locations of large e arthquakes allows us to see where they most frequently occur.Earthquakes are caused by the movement of tectonic plates. The plates move past each other which causes friction causing pressure to build up resulting in sudden jolts. This only happens on plate boundaries meaning areas that lie on them experience the most intense earthquakes. The fact that earthquakes appear in connected lines as opposed to clusters is good evidence for the theory of global plate tectonics. Volcanic events are also useful as they provide good evidence for the theory of plate tectonics.Similarly to earthquakes, plotting the locations of active volcanoes on a map of the world will also be useful as it will show a similar pattern. The three main places where volcanoes are created are at subduction zones, constructive plate boundaries and in hotspots, with around 75% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s volcanoes being located on the Ã¢â¬ËPacific Ring of FireÃ¢â¬â¢. The area where two plates converge is called a subduc tion zone, here one plate is pushed underneath the other due to differing in density. This results in magma rising up to form volcanoes or volcanic island arcs.At constructive plate boundaries, new material is created by magma rising through the crack. The fact that volcanoes in certain areas have different types of eruption provides good evidence for plate tectonic theory. All the above reasons suggest that the theory is valid. However, there are some anomalies which go against the theory. Not all volcanoes occur on plate boundaries, some occur on hotspots which are areas where the mantle is particularly hot, causing it to rise and create volcanoes on the crust above.This suggests that plate tectonics theory may not be valid as volcanoes can exist without the theory being correct. Hawaii is a notable example of an active hotspot Ã¢â¬â the islands are volcanic yet lie in the middle of the Pacific plate. It is part of a chain of extinct volcanic islands in the Pacific Ocean which decrease in both age and size as you move north-west. Since the hotspot is created by the underlying mantle this suggests that the crust is moving over this hotspot meaning the volcanoes eventually become extinct and eroded away.Since WegenerÃ¢â¬â¢s first theory, there is now a great deal of evidence to support the theory of plate tectonics. Seismic and volcanic events can provide lots of evidence to support the theory, although much of it requires tools which were not available when the theory was first developed such as accurate methods of mapping earthquakes. This made it difficult to prove the theory of plate tectonics as there were no hard facts. Although others may disagree, there are large amounts of evidence to prove the theory and so in my opinion the theory is a valid method.
Friday, August 16, 2019
When studied, compared, and scrutinized, every religion Ã¢â¬â though said to be basically similar in that all believe and worship a god/gods Ã¢â¬â is actually different from each other in many respects. Before tackling diversities however, it is better to start with similarities. Many people view all adherents of any religions share at the very least certain commonalities such as historical roots, practices/rituals, and doctrines. In other words, to be considered religious, one must be a follower of a certain form of ritual/practice prescribed by a founder or guru, a worshiper or believer of a god Ã¢â¬â whatever or whoever that god might be. When looked at the surface, this might be true. However, looking closely and seeking out the nuances, one can find real diversities.For example, for a Jew and a Muslim, Christianity is a religion represented by Vatican and the pope as its representative. To the eyes of these two, no differences whatsoever are detected between a devout Ro man Catholic and a Protestant and a Mormon. Of course when investigated, marked differences come to the surface and the initial seemingly unified similarities are gone. Actually, differences are underscored every time there occurs along the way a deviation from the fundamentals of any religion. In the history of Christianity alone, schisms are either a deviation or a return to its roots (Adherents.com, 2007).Effects of Religious PluralismPost your response to this question: What effect do you think religious pluralism and the interfaith movement will have on the future of organized religion? Explain your answer.Religious pluralism and interfaith movement are recently advocated by proponents from different religions with certain political aims. For instance, during Holy Week in 1971, there were many demonstrations conducted by different religious groups to voice their antiwar protests. Professor Robert McAfee Brown of Stanford University was among those arrested for blocking the way to a draft board office in Berkeley, California. He said he chose to preach his sermon Ã¢â¬Å"not in a church but on a pavement, not with words but with a deedÃ¢â¬ (Microsoft Encarta, 2007). Though there are certain benefits to it in terms of rights, there are also disadvantages and innumerable damages that may have paved the way for further confusion in the future.In what ways has learning about world religions influenced the way you think about religion? Why is it important to learn about other peoples' beliefs and attitudes? How will you utilize this information in the future?Knowledge of World religionsKnowledge of the different religions of the world and their adherentsÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs and practices is necessary for a better understanding of different peoples and cultures. Religious tolerance means differently when taken in the light of this endeavor. The ability to understand world religions and appreciate people because of their different persuasions and beliefs mean a mor e empathic and compassionate stance towards any group, ethnic or religious assemblage. Those who differ from us will not be seen as enemies, which oftentimes have become a common experience (Adherents.com, 2007).Reference:Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents, 2007. Retrieved March 11, 2008 ; http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html;Ã Microsoft Encarta. 2007.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
IntroductionGlobalization is a procedure in which limited societies, economic systems, and civilizations have connected through a planetary system of trade. The term is sometimes used to mention peculiarly to economic globalisation: the incorporation of national economic systems into the international economic system through trade, foreign direct investing, capital flows, and addition of engineering. Globalization is by and large known as determined by a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural, and political factors this term can besides mention to the world-wide distribution of thoughts, linguistic communications, or voguish civilization. Competition increases between states. ( Alassane D. Ouattara, 1997 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/1997/052197.htm Globalization is the consequence of a figure of interrelated developments including: The growing and comparative deduction of foreign direct investing. The internationalisation of economic markets. The quickly and go oning development of communicating and conveyance engineering Liberalization and Deregulation A Public sector services converted into denationalization ( www.tssa.org.uk )hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tssa.org.uk/article-38.php3? id_article=2190Economic globalisation is characterized by increasing in trade and investing, liberalisation, denationalization of public services and deregulating of many authorities establishments. Economic globalisation is besides linked with increasing inequality in wealth and influence between states and within states every bit good as between public and private sectors. Economic globalisation has been taking topographic point for the last several old ages it has begun to go on at an increased rate over the last 20-30 old ages. This recent roar has been mostly accounted by developed economic systems linked with less developed economic systems, by resources of foreign direct investing, the decrease of trade obstructions, and the modernisation of these developing civilizations. Environmental globalisation recognizes that an environmental incident or impact that happens in one state is non restricted to that country but has the possible to impact the full universe Ã¢â¬Ës well being. Therefore, communicative globalisation refers to the rapid growing of communicating engineerings such as cyberspace, telephone, orbiter and so on, Ability to associate people, information and thoughts around the universe which impact on civilization, both positively and negatively. ( www.scribd.com ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scribd.com/doc/20581903/Globalization-and-pakistani-economy Denationalization is a demand for globalisation and goes side by side with it. Nowadays the phrase of globalisation has gained importance in all over of the universe. Globalization may hold positive or negative impact on developing states. However, the developing states can last by change in the development of globalisation by public policy readjustment for denationalization, deregulating and liberalisation. The moving ridge of fiscal globalisation as the mid-1980s has been marked by addition in capital flows among industrial states, peculiarly between industrial and developing states. Where these capital flows have been linked with the high growing rates in some underdeveloped states. A figure of states have experienced interrupted prostration in growing rates and major fiscal crises over the same period, that catastrophe have exacted a serious toll in footings of macroeconomic and societal costs. Trade could impact these inequalities merely through its consequence on economic growing in single states. A cardinal issue, so concerns the possible consequence of trade on economic growing. ( khair Uz Zaman, ; , qaiser Aman ; , 2007 )Key Institutions of GlobalizationThe economic globalisation lies with certain influential fiscal establishments that are wholly in the custodies of western states. They include: International Monetary Fund ( IMF ) World Bank ( WB ) World Trade Organization ( WTO ) These establishments are besides known as the Bretton Woods establishments and chiefly influence on the economic and political policy preparation in developing states. ( Rahman MD Faizur, 2005 ) History Globalization: The start of globalisation goes back to the 2nd half of the nineteenth century. When nationality as the footing for province formation was already widespread. The World Bank classifies the development of globalisation since so as follows: The 1st moving ridge of globalisation: 1870 -1914 The retreat into patriotism: 1914 -1945 The 2nd moving ridge of globalisation: 1945 Ã¢â¬â 1980 The new and 3rd moving ridge of globalisation: 1980 The first moving ridge of globalisation was started in 1870 and changeless until the beginning of the First World War in 1914. This period of globalisation made easy for the bringing of imported goods every bit good as the exported goods. The development of telegraph helped to get down contact over long distance. The period of 1914 to 1945 was tagged a retreat of independency and extensively improved in the proficient status of the conveyance and communicating. The great depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s direct to protectionism, which to boot restricted the international division of labours. The 2nd moving ridge of globalisation ( 1945-1980 ) followed the loyal period. As a response to the war, there was much attempt to heighten international clasp. This was reflected in the constitution of the United Nations in 1945 and the Bretton forests establishments in 1946. In 1980, trade of industries was to big extent freed of barriers. In the instance of agricultural merchandises, trade was restricted between developing states ; imports of merchandises of developing states were liberalized if they did non vie with those of the developed states. The 3rd moving ridge of globalisation started around 1980 and this stage continues today. Harmonizing to the World Bank, this period has four features that separate it from the old period. Large Numberss of developing states bankrupt into the planetary markets Developing states became progressively marginalized and suffered from worsening incomes and progressively poverty Worldwide capital motions and in-migration became significant. Increasing devastation of production. ( Kotilainen, Markku ; Kaitila, Ville ; , 2002 ) Globalization, as World War II, is fundamentally the consequence of planning by politicians to interrupt down the boundary lines obstructions in trade to increase the prosperity and mutuality, as a consequence to cut down the opportunities of future war between the states. Since World War II, barriers to international trade have been significantly decreased through international understandings GATT. Particularly inaugural carried out as a consequence of GATT and WTO, for which GATT is the foundation, has included: Promotion of free trade: Eliminating of duties ; creative activity of free trade sector with little or no duties. Reduced transit cost, particularly ensuing from development of containerization for ocean transportation. Decrease, riddance or coordination of fiscal support for local concerns Creation of fiscal support for world-wide corporations. Coordination of rational poorness Torahs across the bulk of provinces, with more limitations. Super national designation of rational poorness restrictions. ( www.scribd.com )hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scribd.com/doc/20581903/Globalization-and-pakistani-economyThe phrase Globalization has been used loosely by media and educational in recent old ages. This describes the procedure of generate webs of connexions through a choice of flows of information, people, capital goods and engineering. In economic sciences, globalisation connect in assorted stage of cross-border traffics, free international capital flows, foreign direct investing, portfolio investing, and rapid and widespread distribution of engineering. Globalization enhances the economic prosperity and leads to more efficient allotment of resources, which, in bend will ensue in higher end product, more employment, lower monetary values and higher criterion of life. However, some critics worry about the ensuing outsourcing and off shore, which have destroyed the American fabrication sector. ( www.scribd.com ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.scribd.com/doc/20581903/Globalization-and-pakistani-economyAdvantages of GlobalizationGoods and people are transferred with more relaxation from one state to another. Due to globalization war between developed states has reduced. Free trading increases the mutuality of the nation-state. Peoples connected in the universe due to planetary mass media. Communication between persons and corporations in the universe increases. Environmental security in developed states additions. Encouragement of more researches and development of new machines and equipment for domestic usage. Peoples connected in the Earth due to worldwide mass media. Strong competition therefore encourages higher quality merchandises Global mass media connects all the people in the universe Increase in economic growing of the state. Decrease of cultural barriers increases the planetary small town consequence ( www.buzzle.com ) www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-of-globalization.htmlDISADVANTAGES OF GLOBALIZATIONIncreased in flow of skilled and non-skilled occupations from developed to developing states as corporations try to happen out the cheapest labour Corporate influence of nation-states far exceeds that of civil society organisations and mean persons Increased opportunity of economic breaks in one state impacting all states. Menace that control of universe media by a smattering of corporations will restrict cultural visual aspect. Greater opportunity of reactions for globalisation being aggressive in an effort to support cultural traditions. Greater hazard of diseases being transported accidentally between states Spread of a mercenary life style and attitude that sees ingestion as the way to prosperity International organic structures like the World Trade Organization violate the national and single independency. Addition in the opportunities of cosmopolitan war within developing states and unfastened war between developing states as they struggle for resources Decreases in environmental dependability as polluting corporations take advantage of weak regulative regulations in developing states. ( www.darkseptemberrain.com ) Impacts of Globalization Harmonizing to economic experts, there are a batch of planetary events connected with globalisation and incorporation. It is easy to sort the alterations brought by the globalisation. Improvement of International Trade. Globalization increases the international trade between many states and makes the sale or purchase easy. Technological Progress. Governments have upgraded their degree of engineering to vie and be competitory globally. Increasing Influence of Multinational Companies. An of import tendency in the globalisation is the increasing influence and broadening range of the transnational companies. A company that has subordinates in assorted states is called a multinational. Power of the WTO, IMF, and WB. Another consequence of globalisation is the beef uping power and influence of international establishments such as the World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, and World Bank. Greater Mobility of Human Resources across Countries. A Globalization allows states to supply their work force in states with inexpensive labour. For case, the work force deficits in Taiwan, South Korea, and Malaysia provide chances for labour exporting states such as the Philippines to convey their human resources to those states for employment. Greater Outsourcing of Business Processes to Other Countries. Different states are enormously profiting from this tendency of planetary concern outsourcing. Global companies in the US take advantage of the cheaper labour and extremely skilled workers that states can propose. Civil Society.A Broadening range of the planetary civil society is an of import tendency in globalisation. Many establishments are established in the state and run by citizens which civil society frequently refers to NGOs. Global civil society refers to NGOs that advocate certain issue or cause. There are many NGOs that promote good environment to adult females Ã¢â¬Ës and back up their rights. Government and NGOs have the same end of functioning the people but these NGOs are working to set up constabularies that are good to all. ( www.hubpages.com ) hypertext transfer protocol: //hubpages.com/hub/Definition-of-GlobalizationEffectss of globalisationMore goods and services are available Expansion of new markets Income coevals and increased in economic growing Development in the volume and scope of cross boundary line minutess in goods and services. Addition in the usage of new engineering in small-scale fabrication to increase the degree of production. The planetary common market has a freedom to merchandise of goods and capital The outgrowth of a new market where the merchandises were market at an international degree for all type of consumers. Widely entree to a big assortment of goods for consumers and companies. Free motion of people of different state Ã¢â¬Ës leads to community benefits. Global environmental and other trade jobs are solved by treatments. development of containerization of ocean transportation cut down the transit cost Decrease in trade barrier Additions in international travel and touristry Addition in the aspiration to utilize abroad thoughts and merchandises, accept new patterns and engineerings and go a portion of universe civilization. Subsidies for local concerns lessening Local consumer merchandises are exported to other states Capital controls cut down or suppress Enhancement in world-wide modern traditions/cultures. ( www.buzzle.com ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-of-globalization.htmlDevelopment COUNTRYDeveloping states are those which have a lower per capita income, unemployment, deficiency of goods and services. Peoples have a lower criterion of life, high infant mortality rate.Features of Developing Economy:The common features of developing states: Lower life criterions Insufficient lodging Low instruction criterion Increase in decease rate Limited life and work anticipation High and lifting degrees of unemployment and under employment. Lack of engineering Low criterion of instruction ( www.shvoong.com ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.shvoong.com/social-sciences/1758902-characteristics-developing-countries/Advantages of globalisation in the underdeveloped universe:Globalization increases the economic prosperity and chance in the underdeveloped universe. The countrywide freedom is enhanced and increases the resources of the developing states and there is a more efficient usage of resources. All the states involved in the free trade are at a net income. As a consequence, there are lower monetary values, more employment and a better criterion of life in these developing states. It is feared that some developing countries advancement at the costs of other developed countries. However, such concerns are unsuccessful as globalisation is a positive-sum opportunity in which the accomplishments and engineerings enable to increase the life criterions throughout the universe. Liberals look at globalisation as an efficient tool to extinguish poorness and let the hapless people to keep a stro ng clasp in the planetary economic system.The Impact of Globalization on the Pakistan EconomyGlobalization is non new. Pakistan has been involved in trade, investing, fiscal flows, engineering transportations and the motion of labour since its foundation. There are a figure of factors that have aided this transmutation.The enlargement of new markets:Foreign exchange and capital markets are linked internationally. They control 24 hours a twenty-four hours with contact any where in the universe possible in all clip. Fiscal deregulating increases the impact of globalisation on the economic system.New engineering and the tools of globalisation:The cyberspace, electronic mail, nomadic phones, media and communicating webs have all sped up the procedure of globalisation. They have increased the broaden of communicating and and velocity cognition transportation.New institutional participants:The World Trade Organization ( WTO ) has emergent right over national authoritiess, as does the IMF with its limitations and controls it can coerce on states necessitating support. Multinational corporations have more economic power than many other states. Include financess and fiscal traders are able to command fiscal flows and accordingly exchange rates, go forthing states helpless in their aftermath.New regulations and limitations:Common understandings on trade, services and rational belongings rights, supported by strong enforcement instrument, diminish the possibility for national authoritiess to widen their ain economic policies.Pakistan EconomyPakistan is a South Asiatic state that was established in 1947. A Pakistan is a underdeveloped state ; its entire population is about 180 million. Its adjacent parts include India, Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and China. Its GDP is $ 164 billion and lending in agribusiness, industry and services severally 19.6 % , 26.82 % and 53.7 % . Per capita income and HDI is about $ 1022 and 0.52. Population of Pakistan is in the 6th figure and has biggest and strongest ground forces in the universe. Pakistan economic system is based on agribusiness sector. In last two decennaries Pakistan service industry has grown up quickly. More than 50 % population of Pakistan is linked with the rural sector. So that Ã¢â¬Ës why largely country is neglected and misused. Entire acquired country of Pakistan is 803,940 km2, but largely country is neglected and developing. External debts are around $ 50.1 billion. Pakistan has an outstanding potency for growing and its current growing rate is 2 % . Pakistan has marvels hoarded wealths of natural resources, fruitful lands, some of largest natural resources mines, highest mountain scopes, 1050 stat mi coastline, huge comeuppances and the best productive lands. Pakistan is one of the most blest states on the Earth. But Pakistan political and economic conditions are non good. ( www.ezinearticles.com ) hypertext transfer protocol: //ezinearticles.com/ ? Pakistans-Economy & A ; id=3489752Pakistan economic developmentlast few old ages at that place has been a con rate of Pakistan economic development that has marked itself in its singular gross domestic merchandise statistics. In fiscal twelvemonth 2007 there was an addition of 52 per centum in sum fixed in Pakistani budget for the development of national economic system. This has been an of import measure in development of Pakistan economic system is concerned as this move has required to turn to underdevelopment of national economic system that has broaden at all degrees particularly in societal sector. Economic development of Pakistan has ever been among its major assets every bit far as attain designation from planetary fiscal circles is concerned. In decennary of 60s Pakistan Ã¢â¬Ës economic system had progressed at a consecutive rate and it was position as being first-class. Economic policies adopted by national authorities h ave helped economic development in Pakistan to a important extent. In 1990s 2 % of gross domestic merchandise of Pakistan had been assigned for economic advancement and its two-base hit in 2003. In 1999 PKR 80 billion had been set away for economic development of Pakistan and by 2007 this sum had gone up to PKR 520 billion. In financial twelvemonth 2008 this sum was PKR 549.7 billion. Poverty in rural countries has been an of import country of Pakistani economic sciences. From 2005 to 2008 $ 16.7 trillion has been spent in order to cover with different issues related to poorness. This money has played a really of import function in overall economic development in Pakistan. Poverty has been reduced to 24 % by 2006 from 35 % at 2000-01. As per Human Development Index of 2007 Pakistan has been accorded position of a Ã¢â¬Å" Medium Development Country Ã¢â¬ . Infrastructural development is an of import country of Pakistan economic development. However, it has non been paid much attending by Pakistan national authorities. More old ages a figure of international fiscal organisations have played a most of import function in development of Pakistan Ã¢â¬Ës economic system such as International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank and World Bank. From 2006 to 2009 Asian Development Bank would be supplying about $ 6 billion for Pakistan economic development. World Bank is supposed to supply a loan for infrastructural development worth $ 6.5 billion in the same period. Pakistan would besides roll up a annual fiscal aid from Japan worth $ 500 million. ( www.economywatch.com ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.economywatch.com/world_economy/pakistan/Variables:GDP is the amount of market value of all concluding goods and services produced in a state within a given twelvemonth, tantamount to entire consumer, investing and authorities disbursement, plus the value of export, minus the value of imports. GDP includes merely goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the U.S, in malice of the manufacturer Ã¢â¬Ës nationality. ( investorwords.com ) FDI Direct investings in productive assets by a company incorporated in a foreign state, as opposed to investings in portions of local companies by foreign entities. An of import characteristic of an progressively globalized economic system. ( www.investorwords.com )BotA state Ã¢â¬Ës exports minus its imports ; it is the largest constituent of a state Ã¢â¬Ës balance of payments. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.investorwords.com/396/balance_of_trade.html